225 illustrations of trees including: quaking aspen, queensland nut, quince, red birch, red maple, red oak, rock elm, rocky mountain juniper, royal palm, rubber tree, sabal, sago, salix, sand pine, sandalwood, sandbox tree, sapodilla, sapote, sassafras, scarlet oak, scotch pine, screw pine, sequoia, shagbark hickory, silver fir, silver bell, snowdrop, spruce, stone pine, sugar maple, sumac, sweet birch, and sycamore

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge very sharply and finely toothed. Outline - long oval, long egg-shape, or reverse egg-shape. Apex - sometimes bristle-pointed. Base - slightly heart-shaped or rounded. Leaf - usually two to three inches long, somewhat downy when young, afterward very smooth above and below. Bark - of branches and twigs usually purplish-brown and very smooth. Flowers - large, white, in long and loose clusters at the ends of the branchlets; appearing before the leaves. April, May. Fruit - berry-like, round, purplish, sweet, and edible. June. Found - in woods and along streams; common at the North; rare in the South. General Information - A small tree, ten to thirty feet high, or in some of its numerous forms reduced to a low shrub; noticeable and showy in early spring because of its flowers. The variety A. C. oblongifolia, T. and G., differs somewhat from the above in the dimensions of the flowers and flower clusters, etc. The name "shad-bush" is given because the trees blossom about the time that the shad "run".

Genus Amelanchier, Medik (June-berry)

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge very sharply and finely toothed. Outline - long oval, long egg-shape,…

Leaves - compound (odd-feathered; leaflets, five); alternate; edge of leaflets sharp-toothed. Outline - of leaflet, long oval, reverse egg-shape or egg-shape, the lower pair differing in shape from the others, and much smaller. Apex - long-pointed. Base - of the end leaflet, wedge-shape; of the others, more or less blunted. Leaf/Stem - rough throughout. Buds - large and scaly, often of a green and brown color. Leaflet/Stems - lacking (or scarcely noticeable), excepting the roughish stem of the end leaflet. Leaflets - four to eight inches long; roughish below. Bark - dark and very rough in the older trunks, peeling up and down in long, shaggy strips. Often the strips cling at their middle and are loose at each end. Fruit - round, nearly one and a half to two inches in diameter; the husk, thick (nearly half an inch), depressed at the center, grooved at the seams, and wholly separating into four inches at maturity; the nut, about one inch long, often the same in breadth, slightly flattened at the sides, angular, nearly pointless, whitish, with a rather this shell, and a large finely flavored kernel. October. Found - from the valley of the St. Lawrence River to Southeastern Minnesota, and southward to Western Florida. Its finest growth is west of the Alleghany Mountains.General Information - A tree, fifty to eighty feet high, of great value. Its tough and elastic wood is used in making agricultural implements, carriages, axe-handles, etc. It ranks also among the best of woods for fuel. Most of the "hickory nuts" of the markets are from this species. All the Hickories are picturesque trees. Their tendency, even when standing alone, is to grow high, and with heads that, instead of being round, are cylinder-shaped to the very top, with only enough breaks and irregularities to add to the effect. This tendency is more marked in the Hickories than in any other of the leaf-shedding trees of North America. They are worthy of the name sometimes given them of 'the artist's tree." Hicoria, from a Greek word meaning round, in allusion to the shape of the nut.

Genus Hicoria, Raf., Carya, Nutt. (Hickory)

Leaves - compound (odd-feathered; leaflets, five); alternate; edge of leaflets sharp-toothed. Outline…

Shoot of Shagbark Hickory, Carya alba.

Shagbark Hickory

Shoot of Shagbark Hickory, Carya alba.

Also known as Hicoria ovata. The branch of a Shagbark Hickory tree, native to the eastern United States.

Branch of Shagbark Hickory

Also known as Hicoria ovata. The branch of a Shagbark Hickory tree, native to the eastern United States.

Also known as Quercus breviloba. The branch of a Shallow-lobed Oak tree, native to the southern United States and northern Mexico.

Branch of Shallow-Lobed Oak

Also known as Quercus breviloba. The branch of a Shallow-lobed Oak tree, native to the southern United…

Also known as Cupressus macnabiana.

Branch of Shasta Cypress

Also known as Cupressus macnabiana.

Also known as Abies magnifica var. shastensis.

Pine Cone of Shasta Red Fir

Also known as Abies magnifica var. shastensis.

These are the staminate flowers of Shellbark Hickory, Hicoria ovata, (Keeler, 1915).

Shellbark Hickory Flower

These are the staminate flowers of Shellbark Hickory, Hicoria ovata, (Keeler, 1915).

Also known as Hicoria laciniosa. The branch of the Shellbark Hickory tree, native to the midwestern United States.

Branch of Shellbark Hickory

Also known as Hicoria laciniosa. The branch of the Shellbark Hickory tree, native to the midwestern…

"The simplest and most generally practised form of budding is that called Shield budding or T-budding. The operator should be provided with a budding-knife in which the cutting edge of the blade is rounded off at the point, and which has a thin ivory or bone handle, for raising the bark of the stock. A horizonal incision is made in the bark quite down to the wood, and from this a perpendicular slit is drawn downwards to the extent of perhaps an inch, so that the slit has a resemblance to the letter T, as at a. A bud is then cut by a clean incision from the tree intended to be propagated, having a portion of the wood attached to it, and so that the whole may be an inch and a half long, as at d." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Shield-Budding

"The simplest and most generally practised form of budding is that called Shield budding or T-budding.…

Also known as Quercus imbricaria. The branch of a Shingle Oak tree, native primarily to the midwestern North American regions.

Branch of Shingle Oak

Also known as Quercus imbricaria. The branch of a Shingle Oak tree, native primarily to the midwestern…

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge entire. Outline - long and narrow. Apex - pointed and bristle-tipped. Base - pointed. Leaf - three to six inches long; one to two inches wide; smooth and shining above; somewhat downy beneath; thick and stiff. Bark - smooth and unbroken. Acorns - small, nearly stemless. Cup - shallow. Nuts - rounded; about one half inch in diameter; bitter. October. Found - in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania (Porter), westward to Southeastern Iowa, and southward. Most common west of the Alleghany Mountains.  General Information - A tree thirty to fifty feet high, with poor wood, that is used at the West for shingles and clapboards.  Note: Of the nine hybrids that have been recognized, most are outside of our limits or entirely local. Mention need be made only of tow: Q. heterophylla, Michaux ("Bartram's Oak"). Staten Island and New Jersey to Delaware and North Carolina; Q. Rudkini, Britt., New Jersey. Quercus, possible from a Celtic word meaning to inquire, because it was among the oaks that the Druids oftenest practised their rites.   The Oak "Live thy Life, Young and old, Like yon oak, Bright in spring, Living gold; Summer-rich, Then; and then Autumn-changed, Sober-hued Gold again. All his leaves fall'n at length, Look, he stands, Trunk and bough, Naked strength.: Alfred (Lord) Tennyson, 1889.

Genus Quercus, L. (Oak)

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge entire. Outline - long and narrow. Apex - pointed and bristle-tipped.…

Leaves - Simple; alternate; edge very finely and sharply toothed. Outline - long egg-shape. Apex - taper-pointed. Base - rounded or slightly pointed. Leaf/Stem - about one fourth to one half inch long. Leaf/Buds - yellowish and smooth. Leaf - about three to five or six inches long, one inch or more wide; dark above, smooth and shining above and below. Middle ribs usually whitish, and distinct above. Found - from New England southward to Chester County, Pennsylvania, west and north. Rather common, usually on wet grounds. General Information - A small tree (or often a shrub) twelve to twenty-five feet high. Salix from two Celtic words meaning "near" and "water."

Genus Salix, L. (Willow)

Leaves - Simple; alternate; edge very finely and sharply toothed. Outline - long egg-shape. Apex - taper-pointed.…

Shoot of Horse-chestnut, of one year's growth, taken in autumn after the leaves have fallen; showing the large terminal bud and smaller auxiliary buds.

Shoot of Horse-chestnut

Shoot of Horse-chestnut, of one year's growth, taken in autumn after the leaves have fallen; showing…

The shortleaf pine is mostly associated with with deciduous-leaved trees, often the predominant forest growth in parts of North America.

Shortleaf pine (pinus echinata Mill.). Natural size. branch with open cones

The shortleaf pine is mostly associated with with deciduous-leaved trees, often the predominant forest…

The shortleaf pine is mostly associated with with deciduous-leaved trees, often the predominant forest growth in parts of North America.

Shortleaf pine (pinus echinata Mill.). Natural size. cone scales, dorsal view

The shortleaf pine is mostly associated with with deciduous-leaved trees, often the predominant forest…

The shortleaf pine is mostly associated with with deciduous-leaved trees, often the predominant forest growth in parts of North America.

Shortleaf pine (pinus echinata Mill.). Natural size. cone scales, ventral view

The shortleaf pine is mostly associated with with deciduous-leaved trees, often the predominant forest…

The shortleaf pine is mostly associated with with deciduous-leaved trees, often the predominant forest growth in parts of North America.

Shortleaf pine (pinus echinata Mill.). Natural size. seed

The shortleaf pine is mostly associated with with deciduous-leaved trees, often the predominant forest…

Also known as Pinus echinata. The pine cone of a Shortleaf Pine tree.

Pine Cone of Shortleaf Pine

Also known as Pinus echinata. The pine cone of a Shortleaf Pine tree.

Illustrated are the leaves and fruits of the silk cotton tree, ceiba casearia. The leaves are smooth and four to six inches long. The cotton like material inside the pods are used in beds and pillows.

Leaves and Fruits of Silk Cotton Tree

Illustrated are the leaves and fruits of the silk cotton tree, ceiba casearia. The leaves are smooth…

An illustration of a silver fir cone and a small branch. Silver Fir or European Silver Fir (Abies alba) is a fir native to the mountains of Europe, from the Pyrenees north to Normandy, east to the Alps and the Carpathians, and south to southern Italy and northern Serbia, where it intergrades with the closely related Bulgarian Fir.

Silver Fir Cone and Foliage

An illustration of a silver fir cone and a small branch. Silver Fir or European Silver Fir (Abies alba)…

Also known as Albies alba.

Pine Cone of Silver Fir

Also known as Albies alba.

A Silver Maple embryo, taken out of the husk; upper part of growing stem cut off.

Silver Maple Embryo

A Silver Maple embryo, taken out of the husk; upper part of growing stem cut off.

The staminate flowers of the Silver Maple, Acer saccharinum, (Keeler, 1915).

Silver Maple Flower

The staminate flowers of the Silver Maple, Acer saccharinum, (Keeler, 1915).

The pistillate flowers of the Silver Maple, Acer saccharinum, (Keeler, 1915).

Silver Maple Flower

The pistillate flowers of the Silver Maple, Acer saccharinum, (Keeler, 1915).

Fruit of Silver Maple, Acer dasycarpum, of natural size, the seed-bearing portion divided to show seed.

Silver Maple Key

Fruit of Silver Maple, Acer dasycarpum, of natural size, the seed-bearing portion divided to show seed.

The seeds of the Silver Maple, Acer saccharinum, (Keeler, 1915).

Silver Maple Seed

The seeds of the Silver Maple, Acer saccharinum, (Keeler, 1915).

Embryo of the seed taken out.

Silver Maple seed

Embryo of the seed taken out.

Silver Maple seed open out, to show the thick cotyledons and the little plumule or bud between them.

Silver Maple Seed Open

Silver Maple seed open out, to show the thick cotyledons and the little plumule or bud between them.

Leaves - simple; opposite; edge deeply lobed, with the lobes unequally notched and toothed. Outline - rounded, with five lobes (the lowest pair much the smallest), and with the hollows between the lobes pointed and usually extending half way to the base of the leaf. Apex - of lobes, pointed. Base - heart-shaped or nearly squared. Leaf - silvery white beneath; downy when young, becoming smooth. Flowers - yellowish-green; woolly when young, becoming nearly smooth; on stems about one inch long, with very large, wide-spreading wings (two to three inches long), one of which is often undeveloped. July, August. Found - widely distributed, but most common west of the Alleghany Mountains and southward. General Information - A tree thirty to fifty feet high, with soft, white wood of comparatively slight value.

Genus Acer, L. (Maple)

Leaves - simple; opposite; edge deeply lobed, with the lobes unequally notched and toothed. Outline…

Silver tree is the common name of leucadendron argenteum. The branches are densely leafy. It is native to South Africa.

Silver Tree

Silver tree is the common name of leucadendron argenteum. The branches are densely leafy. It is native…

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge usually lobed (the lobes toothed). Outline - broad egg-shape. Apex - of the lobes, blunt-pointed. Base - usually slightly heart-shaped. Leaf/Stem - downy and nearly round. Leaf - usually about two and a half inches long; when mature, smooth and dark green above, below downy and almost snow-white. In the young leaves both surfaces and the leaf-stem are snowy-white and downy. General Information - A native of Europe; now widely introduced. A very ornamental tree, but troublesome in cultivation, and now out of favor because of the abundance of suckers that spring from its roots.

Genus Populus, L. (Aspen, Poplar)

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge usually lobed (the lobes toothed). Outline - broad egg-shape. Apex…

"Halesia tetraptera. 1. its fruit; 2. a perpendicular; 3. a transverse, section of it." -Lindley, 1853

Carolina Silverbell

"Halesia tetraptera. 1. its fruit; 2. a perpendicular; 3. a transverse, section of it." -Lindley, 1853

These are the flowers of the Silverbell-tree, Mohrodendron carolinum, (Keeler, 1915).

Silverbell-Tree Flowers

These are the flowers of the Silverbell-tree, Mohrodendron carolinum, (Keeler, 1915).

Also known as Pinus monophylla. The pine cone of a Single-leaf Pinyon.

Pine Cone of Single-Leaf Pinyon

Also known as Pinus monophylla. The pine cone of a Single-leaf Pinyon.

Also known as Salix sitchensis. The branch of a Sitka Willow tree, native to northwestern North America.

Branch of Sitka Willow

Also known as Salix sitchensis. The branch of a Sitka Willow tree, native to northwestern North America.

These are the fruit, or samara, of Slippery Elm, Ulmus pubescens, (Keeler, 1915).

Slippery Elm Fruit

These are the fruit, or samara, of Slippery Elm, Ulmus pubescens, (Keeler, 1915).

Also known as Ulmus fulva. The branch of a Slippery Elm tree, native to eastern North America.

Branch of Slippery Elm

Also known as Ulmus fulva. The branch of a Slippery Elm tree, native to eastern North America.

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge sharply and doubly toothed. Outline - oval or long egg-shape. Apex - taper-pointed. Base - slightly heart-shaped or rounded. Leaf/Stem - about one eighth inch long, stout and rough. Buds - hairy. Leaf - four to seven inches long, three to four inches wide. The upper surface is rough both ways, and very rough downwards, almost like a fine file. The under surface is slightly rough. Ribs - beneath are prominent and straight, and hairy in their angles. Bark - of the larger branches, brownish; branchlets, light-gray and very rough, becoming grayish-purple. The inner bark is very gummy and "slippery." Seeds - flat, round, winged, but not fringed. Last of May. Found - along the lower St. Lawrence to Ontario, and from Western New England westward and southward; in woods and along streams. General Information - A tree thirty to forty feet high. Its wood is hard and strong, but splits easily when dry. Though otherwise inferior, for posts it is superior to white elm. Its inner bark is sold by druggists as "slippery elm," and is nutritious and medicinal. Its name of red elm is due to the reddish-brown tinge of its large rounded and hairy buds in the spring.

Genus Ulmus, L. (Elm)

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge sharply and doubly toothed. Outline - oval or long egg-shape. Apex…

"Careya arborea. 1. one of the bundles of stamens; 2. a perpendicular section of the ovary; 3. section of the seed." -Lindley, 1853

Slow Match Tree

"Careya arborea. 1. one of the bundles of stamens; 2. a perpendicular section of the ovary; 3. section…

Leaves - compound (odd-feathered; leaflets, five to seven, oftenest five); alternate; edge of leaflets sharp-toothed. Outline - of leaflets, mostly long oval. Apex - pointed. Base - pointed. Leaf/Stem - smooth. Leaflet/Stems - lacking (or scarcely noticeable), excepting the short stem of the end leaflet. Leaflets - mostly four to eight inches long, remarkable smooth, excepting that the under surface is tufted in the angles of the ribs and usually dotted with dark glandular spots. Bark - rough and close. Fruit - broad egg-shape. Husk - thin, splitting part way to the base. Nut - small (three fourths of an inch in diameter), not angled, not sharp-pointed, and with a thin shell.Found - on moist ground, New York to Delaware, west to Michigan and Illinois, rarely, if ever, in New England. General Information - All the Hickories are picturesque trees. Their tendency, even when standing alone, is to grow high, and with heads that, instead of being round, are cylinder-shaped to the very top, with only enough breaks and irregularities to add to the effect. This tendency is more marked in the Hickories than in any other of the leaf-shedding trees of North America. They are worthy of the name sometimes given them of 'the artist's tree." Hicoria, from a Greek word meaning round, in allusion to the shape of the nut.

Genus Hicoria, Raf., Carya, Nutt. (Hickory)

Leaves - compound (odd-feathered; leaflets, five to seven, oftenest five); alternate; edge of leaflets…

Leaves with several veins running from base to apex; stems often thorny.

Smilax

Leaves with several veins running from base to apex; stems often thorny.

This is the fruit of the Snowdrop-tree, Mohrodendron dipterum, (Keeler, 1915).

Snowdrop-tree Fruit

This is the fruit of the Snowdrop-tree, Mohrodendron dipterum, (Keeler, 1915).

"Branch with fruits of Sapindus drummondi. a, a flower." -Whitney, 1911

Western Soapberry

"Branch with fruits of Sapindus drummondi. a, a flower." -Whitney, 1911

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge toothed. Outline - oval. Apex - pointed. Base - rounded or slightly pointed. Leaf - four to six inches long, one and a half to two and a half inches wide, soon becoming smooth, with a decided acid taste (whence the name). Bark - of trunk, rough and deeply furrowed. Flowers - white, in loose and long one-sided clusters. Found - from Pennsylvania and Ohio southward, chiefly along the Alleghany Mountains, and usually in dry, gravelly soil. General Information - A tree forty to sixty feet high, with hard, close-grained wood, which is used for the handles of tools, the bearings of machinery, etc. Name from two Greek words meaning sour and tree.

Genus oxydendrum, D. C. (Sorrel Tree)

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge toothed. Outline - oval. Apex - pointed. Base - rounded or slightly…

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge entire. Outline - oval or reverse egg-shape. Apex - pointed. Base - pointed. Leaf/Stem - slightly hairy when young. Leaf - two to five inches long; usually about half as broad; dark green and very shining above, especially when old; light green and shining below; thick, tough, and firm. Middle rib slightly hairy when young; side ribs rather indistinct and curved. Bark - grayish and often broken into short sections. Fertile Flowers - small, in clusters of three to eight on slender stems. April, May. Fruit - nearly one half inch long; bluish-black when ripe; egg-shape or oval; acid and rather bitter until "frosted." Stone - oval, somewhat pointed at each end, slightly flattened, and with three or four blunt ridges on each side. September. Found - from Southern Maine to Michigan, and southward to Florida and Texas. General Information - A tree twenty to forty feet high (larger southward), with flat, horizontal branches. The wood, even in short lengths, is very difficult of cleavage, and so is well fitted for beetles, hubs of wheels, pulleys, etc. Its leaves are the first to ripen in the fall, changing (sometimes as early as August) to a bright crimson. In the South, opossums climb the tree in search of its fruit and are immortalized in stories.

Genus Nyssa, L. (Sour Gum)

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge entire. Outline - oval or reverse egg-shape. Apex - pointed. Base -…

Pictured is the leaf or sour or seville orange. The leaves are light green when young and three to four inches long.

Sour Orange Leaf

Pictured is the leaf or sour or seville orange. The leaves are light green when young and three to four…

Also known as Malus angustifolia. The branch of a Southern Crabapple tree, native throughout the Southeastern United States.

Branch of Southern Crabapple

Also known as Malus angustifolia. The branch of a Southern Crabapple tree, native throughout the Southeastern…

Also known as Quercus virginiana. The branch of a Southern Live Oak tree, native to the southeastern United States.

Branch of Southern Live Oak

Also known as Quercus virginiana. The branch of a Southern Live Oak tree, native to the southeastern…

Spanish lime and genip are the common names of <i>melicocca bijuga</i>. The fruits are about the same size and shape as plums. The fruit has a pleasant flavor similar to grapes.

Spanish Lime

Spanish lime and genip are the common names of melicocca bijuga. The fruits are about the same size…

This shows two leaves of Spanish Oak, Quercus digitata, (Keeler, 1915).

Spanish Oak Leaves

This shows two leaves of Spanish Oak, Quercus digitata, (Keeler, 1915).

Also known as Quercus falcata. The branch of a Spanish Oak tree, naive to the eastern coast of the United States.

Branch of Spanish Oak

Also known as Quercus falcata. The branch of a Spanish Oak tree, naive to the eastern coast of the United…

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge lobed (the edges of the lobes mostly entire, but often with one to three teeth toward the ends). Outline - abruptly spreading above the middle. Base - rounded, sometimes slightly unequal. Ends of the lobes and of the few teeth, when present, sharp and bristle-tipped. Leaf - about three to six inches long; dark, dull green, and rough above; below, grayish and downy. Lobes, usually three, sometimes four or five, mostly long and narrow, especially the end one. Bark - of trunk, blackish and deeply grooved. Acorns - nearly stemless. Cup - shallow, somewhat top-shaped. Nut, about one third to one half inch long, rounded, sometimes slightly hollowed at the apex, bitter. October. Found - in sandy soils and barrens, from Long Island southward; in the Northern States, only near the coat and rare. General Information - A tree about twenty to thirty feet high in New Jersey; in the South, seventy to eighty feet; with wood of slight value except for fuel. Quercus, possible from a Celtic word meaning to inquire, because it was among the oaks that the Druids oftenest practised their rites.

Genus Quercus, L. (Oak)

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge lobed (the edges of the lobes mostly entire, but often with one to…

Flower of the spindle tree.

Spindle Tree Flower

Flower of the spindle tree.

Fruit of the spindle tree.

Spindle tree fruit

Fruit of the spindle tree.

"Euonymus europaeus. 1. a section of a fruit; 2. a seed enveloped in its aril; 3. a perpendicular section of a seed." -Lindley, 1853

European Spindle

"Euonymus europaeus. 1. a section of a fruit; 2. a seed enveloped in its aril; 3. a perpendicular section…

"The maple spot gall, so common on the leaves of the red maple, is made by the fungus-gnat of the order Diptera." &mdash; Davison, 1906

Maple spot gall

"The maple spot gall, so common on the leaves of the red maple, is made by the fungus-gnat of the order…

An illustration of the spruce fir's cone, and foliage.

Spruce Fir Cone and Foliage

An illustration of the spruce fir's cone, and foliage.

"Longitudinal section through fertilized ovule of a spruce. p, pollen grains; t, pollen tubes; n neck of the archegonium; a, body of archegonium with nucleus; e, embryo sac filled with endosperm." -Bergen, 1896

Spruce Ovule

"Longitudinal section through fertilized ovule of a spruce. p, pollen grains; t, pollen tubes; n neck…

Also known as Pinus glabra. The pine cone of a Spruce Pine tree.

Pine Cone of Spruce Pine

Also known as Pinus glabra. The pine cone of a Spruce Pine tree.