The Stems and Roots ClipArt gallery provides 110 illustrations of the various types of stem and root structures in plants.

"Aculeus.--A prickle or sharp point, from the bark." -Newman, 1850

Aculeus

"Aculeus.--A prickle or sharp point, from the bark." -Newman, 1850

<I>Anemone coronaria</I> has tuberous roots. The flowers grow up to one foot tall from the roots

Tubers of Anemone Coronaria

Anemone coronaria has tuberous roots. The flowers grow up to one foot tall from the roots

Illustrated is the cross section of a stem of a tropical climber of the bignonia family. The stem is four parted.

Cross Section of Stem of Bignonia

Illustrated is the cross section of a stem of a tropical climber of the bignonia family. The stem is…

"Buds.--Coverings of the germ." -Newman, 1850

Buds

"Buds.--Coverings of the germ." -Newman, 1850

"a.-- Truncated bulb of onion; b.-- onion leaf dissected off; c.-- bulb of lily. Bulb, a modified leaf-bud, formed on a plant upon or beneath the surface of the ground, emitting roots from its base, and producing a stem from its center." -Vaughan, 1906

Various Bulbs

"a.-- Truncated bulb of onion; b.-- onion leaf dissected off; c.-- bulb of lily. Bulb, a modified leaf-bud,…

A sugar cane stem. A are buds or eyes, B are joints, C are nodes, D are internodes, and X are dots where roots may originate.

Sugar Cane

A sugar cane stem. A are buds or eyes, B are joints, C are nodes, D are internodes, and X are dots where…

Capparis Spinosa, or Caper plant.

Caper plant

Capparis Spinosa, or Caper plant.

"Diagram showing tissue-systems in young stem of castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis), as seen in cross-section. ep, epidermis; cor, cortex; p, pith or medulla; b, fibro-vascular bundle; ph, phloem; ca, cambium; x, xylem; ic, interfascicular cambium." -Gager, 1916

Castor-Oil Plant Stem

"Diagram showing tissue-systems in young stem of castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis), as seen in cross-section.…

Chenopodium olidum, or Wild Arrach, an herb. 1, flower.

Chenopodium

Chenopodium olidum, or Wild Arrach, an herb. 1, flower.

Clematis illustration showing leaf stalks modified as tendrils.

Clematis

Clematis illustration showing leaf stalks modified as tendrils.

1, convolvulus (twining stem).

Climbing Plants

1, convolvulus (twining stem).

A cotton plant.

cotton plant

A cotton plant.

"Showing the planes in which sections are cut longitudinal radially" -Stevens, 1916

Cutting Radially

"Showing the planes in which sections are cut longitudinal radially" -Stevens, 1916

"Showing the planes in which sections are cut transversely." -Stevens, 1916

Cutting Sections Transversely

"Showing the planes in which sections are cut transversely." -Stevens, 1916

"Showing the planes in which sections are cut longitudinal tangentially." -Stevens, 1916

Cutting Tangentially

"Showing the planes in which sections are cut longitudinal tangentially." -Stevens, 1916

An endogen, a plant that grows internally.

Endogen

An endogen, a plant that grows internally.

An exogen, a plant that grows externally.

Exogen

An exogen, a plant that grows externally.

"Exogen. 1. Section of a branch of three years' growth: a, medulla or pith; b b, medullary sheath; e e, medullary rays; c c c, circles of annual growth; d, bark. 2. Netted veined leaf (oak). 3. Dicotyledonous seed: a, cotyledon. 4. Germination of dicotyledonous seed: a a, seed-leaves or cotyledons; o, plumula. 5. Exogenous flower (crowfoot)." -Whitney, 1911

Section of Branch Showing Exogen

"Exogen. 1. Section of a branch of three years' growth: a, medulla or pith; b b, medullary sheath; e…

Ginger is the dried rhizome of the tropical plant Zingiber officinale. It is used in cookery, because of its aromatic volatile oil, and as a confection, either in syrup or 'crystallized' with sugar. In medicine, it is usually employed as a carminative, usually in the form of the tincture. It is grown principally in the East Indies (its original home), the West Indies, and tropical Africa.

Ginger

Ginger is the dried rhizome of the tropical plant Zingiber officinale. It is used in cookery, because…

A type of plant root.

Root Hairs

A type of plant root.

Hedge Garlic (Sisymbrium Allaria). A, Inflorescence and Cauline Leaves.  B, Radical Leaf and Root.

Hedge Garlic

Hedge Garlic (Sisymbrium Allaria). A, Inflorescence and Cauline Leaves. B, Radical Leaf and Root.

Juncus conglomeratus, also known as the common rush, belongs to a genus of grass-like herbs (Juncus) that grow in boggy places. It is the best known species, with cylindrical stems and crowded panicles of flowers below the tapered extremities of the stems.

Juncus Conglomeratus

Juncus conglomeratus, also known as the common rush, belongs to a genus of grass-like herbs (Juncus)…

Known as the soft rush, Juncus effusus is nearly as common as the most common species, J. conglomeratus. It can be distinguished from J. conglomeratus by its branching and looser inflorescence. It belongs to a genus of grass-like herbs (Juncus) that grow in boggy places.

Juncus Effusus

Known as the soft rush, Juncus effusus is nearly as common as the most common species, J. conglomeratus.…

Jute, also known as Calcutta Hemp, is a fiber obtained from several species of the genus Corchorus of the order Tiliaceæ, and employed in the manufacture of the coarser textiles. The great bulk of the world's supply is derived from two species, C. capsularis and C. olitorius (Jew's Mallow), both of which are indigenous to Bengal, India, where from remote times they have been cultivate for economic purposes. The two species are similar in appearance, but may be distinguished by the form of the seed pods, which are nearly spherical in C. capsularis, and long and narrow in C. olitorius. Both plants are herbaceous annuals with straight, slender stalks from 5 to 15 feet in height, branched at the top, and bearing small yellow flowers. The fiber, which is derived from the inner bark, is of a creamy yellow or light buff color and of a silky luster. It spins well, but is not as strong as flax or hemp, and deteriorates rapidly. The young shoots are used as pot herbs.
Jute is grown chiefly in Bengal, though it is raised to a limited extent in China, Formosa, and Southern Japan. It can be grown successfully in the South Atlantic and Gulf States of the United States, but lack of mechanical methods for preparing the fiber has prevented its cultivation on an industrial scale. Attempts to naturalize it elsewhere have generally failed.
For its most successful cultivation, jute requires a soft, deep soil and a hot, moist atmosphere, alluvial lands being especially adapted to its production.
This illustration shows Corchorus capsularis.

Jute

Jute, also known as Calcutta Hemp, is a fiber obtained from several species of the genus Corchorus of…

Lattice Leaf is the popular name of a water plant, 'Aponogeton jenestralis', belonging to the order 'Aponogetonaceæ'. The older leaves are of open structure, are nearly a foot long, oblong in shape, and float just below the surface of the water. The flowers are born in spikes in the surface. The roots of the plant are used as an article of food by the natives of Madagascar, where it is indigenous.
(1. Part of Flower Spike)

Lattice Leaf

Lattice Leaf is the popular name of a water plant, 'Aponogeton jenestralis', belonging to the order…

A leafy branch, with separate roots illustrated on the right.

Leafy Branch with Roots

A leafy branch, with separate roots illustrated on the right.

Lentile, a species of pulse or bean.

Lentile

Lentile, a species of pulse or bean.

This illustration shows a portion of Lepidodendron. Lepidodendron is the generic name of a large and important group of plants  which flourished principally in the Carboniferous period. The outer surface of the bark is marked by lozenge-shaped, scale-like markings, the leaf-cushions. These are arranged in dense spirals, which wind around the stems. Often, the narrow and pointed leaves are found, still adherent; they may also carry cones <i>(lepidostrobi)</i>, which in form somewhat resemble those of the fir. The branches usually fork repeatedly, and were implanted on a massive stem which had a similar external sculpture. Some of these stems have been seen in the roofs of coal workings with a length of a hundred feet. Their roots are generally known as stigmaria. The Lepidodendra belonged to the Lycopodiaceæ, and have their nearest representatives in the diminutive club-mosses, which they resemble even in their superficial characters.

Portion of Lepidodendron

This illustration shows a portion of Lepidodendron. Lepidodendron is the generic name of a large and…

Cells of young root of a seedling Maple.

Maple

Cells of young root of a seedling Maple.

Much magnified small portion of young root of a seedling Maple.

Maple

Much magnified small portion of young root of a seedling Maple.

Myrrh, found in the old testament of the bible as one of the three gifts given to Jesus on the day of his birth.

Myrrh

Myrrh, found in the old testament of the bible as one of the three gifts given to Jesus on the day of…

A Palm-stem in transverse and longitudinal section, the dots on the cross sections represent cut ends of the woody bundles or threads.

Palm-stem

A Palm-stem in transverse and longitudinal section, the dots on the cross sections represent cut ends…

Ivy (aerial roots).

Plant

Ivy (aerial roots).

"Diagram showing the relation of this year's leaves to the wood of the current year." -Stevens, 1916

Plant Tissues

"Diagram showing the relation of this year's leaves to the wood of the current year." -Stevens, 1916

Roots aid in support and nutrition for the plant. This is a runner root which sends down roots into the ground. The strawberry spreads this way.

Root

Roots aid in support and nutrition for the plant. This is a runner root which sends down roots into…

Roots aid in support and nutrition for the plant. This is a bulbous root from an onion.

Root

Roots aid in support and nutrition for the plant. This is a bulbous root from an onion.

This shows a typical root cap and root hairs, (Keeler, 1915).

Root Cap

This shows a typical root cap and root hairs, (Keeler, 1915).

"Apex of root hair flattened out over and imbedding soil particles." -Stevens, 1916

Plant Root Hair

"Apex of root hair flattened out over and imbedding soil particles." -Stevens, 1916

"A single root hair on a large scale, showing that it is an outgrowth of an epidermal cell, and the fact that it possesses a living protoplast and large vacuole filled with cell-sap and traversed by cytoplasmic strands. The nucleus is near the apex of the hair." -Stevens, 1916

Plant Root Hair

"A single root hair on a large scale, showing that it is an outgrowth of an epidermal cell, and the…

"Cross section of a root in the region of the root hairs." -Stevens, 1916

Plant Root Hairs

"Cross section of a root in the region of the root hairs." -Stevens, 1916

"Apparatus to measure root-pressure. T, large tube fastened to the stump of the dahlia stem by a rubber tube; rr, rubber stoppers; t, bent tube containing mercury; ll', upper and lower level of mercury in T." -Bergen, 1896

Root Pressure

"Apparatus to measure root-pressure. T, large tube fastened to the stump of the dahlia stem by a rubber…

"Laticiferous vessels from the cortex of root of Scorozonora hispanica...B, smaller portion." -Stevens, 1916

Root Vessels

"Laticiferous vessels from the cortex of root of Scorozonora hispanica...B, smaller portion." -Stevens,…

"Portion of a cross section of a root of Allium ascalonicum. h, large central, tracheal tube; i, xylem, and l, phloem portion of the vascular bundle; n, cortex cells; 1, endodermis with thin-walled cell at k to admit passage of materials; m, pericycle or pericambium." -Stevens, 1916

A. Ascalonicum Root

"Portion of a cross section of a root of Allium ascalonicum. h, large central, tracheal tube; i, xylem,…

A type of plant root.

Aerial Root

A type of plant root.

"These roots are such as subdivide in the earth in a manner similar to the divisions of the stem, and are found exhibited in the forest trees and shrubs."&mdash;Darby, 1855

Branching Root

"These roots are such as subdivide in the earth in a manner similar to the divisions of the stem, and…

"The bulb is a leaf-bud inclosed in scales or concentric layers, and is found either at the base of summit of the stem, or in the axils of the leaves; and differs in no respect from the buds hereafter to be described, but in separating itself from the parent, and forming an independent individual."&mdash;Darby, 1855

Bulb Root

"The bulb is a leaf-bud inclosed in scales or concentric layers, and is found either at the base of…

A bulbous root.

Bulbous Root

A bulbous root.

"The Cormus is that variety which increases beneath the earth by development of buds in the axils of the scales, but retains its globular figure, and propagates itself in no particular direction."&mdash;Darby, 1855

Cormus Root

"The Cormus is that variety which increases beneath the earth by development of buds in the axils of…

A creeping root.

Creeping Root

A creeping root.

The Dahlia root is a perennial.

Dahlia Root

The Dahlia root is a perennial.

"When the fibers of roots become enlarged by the deposition of starch, they form this variety of root."&mdash;Darby, 1855

Fasciculated Root

"When the fibers of roots become enlarged by the deposition of starch, they form this variety of root."—Darby,…

A fibrous root.

Fibrous Root

A fibrous root.

"This variety consists of numerous fibers proceeding from the neck of the plant, and may be seen in most grasses and grains."&mdash;Darby, 1855

Fibrous Root

"This variety consists of numerous fibers proceeding from the neck of the plant, and may be seen in…

A type of plant root.

Fibrous Root

A type of plant root.

"Where the root tapers toward each extremity, as seen in the Radish."&mdash;Darby, 1855

Fusiform Root

"Where the root tapers toward each extremity, as seen in the Radish."—Darby, 1855

"The variety which is very large at the base, but tapers abruptly, as in the Turnip."&mdash;Darby, 1855

Napiform Root

"The variety which is very large at the base, but tapers abruptly, as in the Turnip."—Darby, 1855

Roots which never reach the ground are produced by certain plants whose seeds, lodged upon the boughs or trunks of trees, grow there and make an epiphyte, or an air-plant.

Orchid Root

Roots which never reach the ground are produced by certain plants whose seeds, lodged upon the boughs…

A premorse (or abruptly ending) root.

Premorse Root

A premorse (or abruptly ending) root.

"The Rhizoma or Rootstock grows in a nearly horizontal direction, emitting roots from its under side, increasing by one extremity only, at which it puts forth leaves and flower-stems, and gradually dying at the other. Its surface is generally marked by irregular ridges formed by the bases of decayed leaves."&mdash;Darby, 1855

Rhizoma Root

"The Rhizoma or Rootstock grows in a nearly horizontal direction, emitting roots from its under side,…

A spindle root.

Spindle Root

A spindle root.