"The Abdominal Viscera <em>in situ</em>, as seen when the abdomin is laid open and the great omentum removed. The ribs on the right side are indicated by Roman numerals; it will be observed that the eighth costal cartilage articulated with the sternum on both sides." &mdash;Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Abdomen

"The Abdominal Viscera in situ, as seen when the abdomin is laid open and the great omentum…

"In human anatomy, certain regions into which the abdomen is arbitrarily divided for the purpose of mapping its surface with reference to the viscera which lie beneath these reions respectively."-Wright, 1902

Abdominal

"In human anatomy, certain regions into which the abdomen is arbitrarily divided for the purpose of…

"Tendons are white, glistening cords, or straps, which connect the muscles with the bones." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Achillles tendon

"Tendons are white, glistening cords, or straps, which connect the muscles with the bones." —…

"Cats purr, dogs bark, cocks crow, a cow lows, a donkey brays, an eagle screams, parrots talk, spiders tick, mankind laugh and cry." -Trowbridge, 1866

Animal Rebus

"Cats purr, dogs bark, cocks crow, a cow lows, a donkey brays, an eagle screams, parrots talk, spiders…

"Side view of the axis, the second cervical vertebra."&mdash;Finley, 1917

Axis

"Side view of the axis, the second cervical vertebra."—Finley, 1917

A diagram showing the muscular cycle form by the biceps or flexor muscle, and the triceps or extensor muscle of the human arm.

Muscular Cycle of the Biceps

A diagram showing the muscular cycle form by the biceps or flexor muscle, and the triceps or extensor…

"A single muscle rarely or never contracts alone, but always in harmony with a number of other muscles. Even the simplest movement we can make requres the combined action of several muscles to carry it out. If the movement is at all difficult, such as playing on the piano or riding on the bicycle, the different muscles must contract in a certain order and with a certain strength and rapidity." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Superficial muscles of the body

"A single muscle rarely or never contracts alone, but always in harmony with a number of other muscles.…

An ancient Assyrian wall relief, depicting the symbol of a winged bull with the head of a human male.

Winged Bull

An ancient Assyrian wall relief, depicting the symbol of a winged bull with the head of a human male.

in early development of race, the Caucasian type consisted of Mediterranean men (Jews of Algiers), Mediterranean woman (Berber) and Nordics (Englishmen).

Early Races, Caucasian

in early development of race, the Caucasian type consisted of Mediterranean men (Jews of Algiers), Mediterranean…

"Across the middle ear a chain of three small bones stretches from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear. These bones are called from their shape the <em>malleus</em> (hammer), the <em>incus</em> (anvil), and the <em>stapes</em> (stirrup)." — Ritchie, 1918

Bones of the Ear

"Across the middle ear a chain of three small bones stretches from the tympanic membrane to the inner…

"The human eye-essential parts shown in section." &mdash;Croft 1917

Eye

"The human eye-essential parts shown in section." —Croft 1917

An illustration of an eye.

Eye

An illustration of an eye.

"Section of the human eye." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Human eye

"Section of the human eye." — Blaisedell, 1904

"The <em>femur</em>, or thigh bone, the largest and heaviest bone in the body, reaches from the hip to the knee. It has a rounded head, which fits into the cuplike cavity in the hip bone which has already been mentioned." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Femur

"The femur, or thigh bone, the largest and heaviest bone in the body, reaches from the hip…

An illustration of a human foot.

Foot

An illustration of a human foot.

"The bones are fastened together, kept in place, and their movements limited, by tough and strong bands, or straps, called <em>ligaments</em>, from a word meaning to bind." — Blaisedell, 1904

Ligaments of the Foot and Ankle

"The bones are fastened together, kept in place, and their movements limited, by tough and strong bands,…

"The foot is built in the form of a half-dome or half-arch. This is to afford a broad, strong support surface for the support of the weight of the body. The bones of the toes and the heel form the piers, while the little bones wedged in between the metatarsal bones and the heel make up the keystone of the arch. This arch gives a certain amount of spring and elasticity to the feet, and hence it is of the upmost importance in preventing jars and jolts." — Blaisedell, 1904

Bones of the Foot

"The foot is built in the form of a half-dome or half-arch. This is to afford a broad, strong support…

"Tendons on the Top of the Right Foot." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Tendons of the foot

"Tendons on the Top of the Right Foot." — Blaisedell, 1904

Early developments of racial types, a tomb paint from an Egyptian tomb.

Racial Types From Egyptian Paintings

Early developments of racial types, a tomb paint from an Egyptian tomb.

"Tendons on the Back of the Left Hand" &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Tendons of the hand

"Tendons on the Back of the Left Hand" — Blaisedell, 1904

"The bones are fastened together, kept in place, and their movements limited, by tough and strong bands, or straps called <em>ligaments</em>, from a word meaning to bind." — Blaisedell, 1904

Powerful Ligament at the Hip Joint

"The bones are fastened together, kept in place, and their movements limited, by tough and strong bands,…

An early figure of the Egyptian hippopotamus goddess.

Egyptian Hippopotamus Goddess

An early figure of the Egyptian hippopotamus goddess.

"The proportions of the human figure. As handed down to us by Vitruvius and described by Joseph Bonomi." &mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Proportions of human figure

"The proportions of the human figure. As handed down to us by Vitruvius and described by Joseph Bonomi."…

This illustration shows a side view of the human skeleton.

Human Skeleton

This illustration shows a side view of the human skeleton.

This illustration shows a front view of the human skeleton.

Human Skeleton

This illustration shows a front view of the human skeleton.

A human skeleton.

Human skeleton

A human skeleton.

Showing the brain cavity of a human.

Human skull

Showing the brain cavity of a human.

Loom used to make textiles

Loom

Loom used to make textiles

"<em>A</em>, division of left bronchus to upper lobe; <em>B</em>, left branch of the pulmonary artery; <em>C</em>, left bronchus; <em>D</em>, left superior pulmonary vein; <em>E</em>, left inferior pulmonary vein; <em>F</em>, left auricle; <em>K</em>, inferior vena cava; <em>L</em>; division of the right bronchus to lower lobe; <em>M</em>, right inferior pulmonary vein; <em>N</em>, right superior pulmonary vein, <em>O</em>, right branch of the pulmonary artery; <em>P</em>, division of right bronchus to upper lobe; <em>R</em>, left ventricle; <em>S</em>, right ventricle." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Lungs

"A, division of left bronchus to upper lobe; B, left branch of the pulmonary artery;…

A housemaid or chambermaid.

House Maid

A housemaid or chambermaid.

A large branching plant with varying yellow and orange flowers.

African Marigold

A large branching plant with varying yellow and orange flowers.

"When the concave mirror is large, say six inches in diameter, and eight or ten inches focal distance, it exhibits the human face of enormous bulk, the spectator being frightened at the size and courseness of his own features." -Comstock 1850

Magnified Face in a Concave Mirror

"When the concave mirror is large, say six inches in diameter, and eight or ten inches focal distance,…

in early development of race, the Mongolian type consistent of Kalmucks, Chinese, and Amerindians.

Early Races, Mongolian

in early development of race, the Mongolian type consistent of Kalmucks, Chinese, and Amerindians.

A frontal view of the human muscles. The right half shows superficial muscles and the left half shows deep muscles.

Muscles

A frontal view of the human muscles. The right half shows superficial muscles and the left half shows…

in early development of race, the Negro type were found in Africa.

Early Races, Negro

in early development of race, the Negro type were found in Africa.

Indian pipe in the shape of a human head, used for smoking tobacco.

Indian Pipe

Indian pipe in the shape of a human head, used for smoking tobacco.

"When a bone is broken, blood trickles out between the injured parts, and afterwards gives place to a sticky, watery fluid, which gradually becomes thicker, like a syrup or jelly. This is slowly replaced by a new bone structure and forms a kind of cement to gold together the broken ends." — Blaisedell, 1904

Broken Radius

"When a bone is broken, blood trickles out between the injured parts, and afterwards gives place to…

"There are in all two hundred and six seperate bones in the adult skelton. The teeth are not bones, but are a part of the skin." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Human skeleton

"There are in all two hundred and six seperate bones in the adult skelton. The teeth are not bones,…

"The human body, like a great building, has a framework which gives the body its shape and provides support for it. This framework is composed of 206 bones. All the bones taken together are called the <em>skeleton</em>." &mdash; Ritchie, 1918

Human skeleton

"The human body, like a great building, has a framework which gives the body its shape and provides…

The skeleton of a man.

Human Skeleton

The skeleton of a man.

A bottom view of an adult human skull.

Adult skull

A bottom view of an adult human skull.

A top down view of a human skull.

Adult skull

A top down view of a human skull.

"A, frontal bone; B, parietal bone; C, temporal bone; D, sphenoid bone; E, malar bone; F, upper jawbone; G, lower jawbone" &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Human skull

"A, frontal bone; B, parietal bone; C, temporal bone; D, sphenoid bone; E, malar bone; F, upper jawbone;…

A side view of the human skull at birth.

Infant skull

A side view of the human skull at birth.

A top down view of the human skull at birth.

Infant skull

A top down view of the human skull at birth.

"The Top of the Skull, showing the Sutures." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Top of skull

"The Top of the Skull, showing the Sutures." — Blaisedell, 1904

"In the figure on the left are seen the artery and vein of a villus. In the right figure are represented the central lacteal of the villus, with the plexus of lymph vessels at the base. The mucous, submucuous, muscular, and serous coats are indicated at the base of the right-hand figure.  The epithelium of each villus is well shown." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Transverse section of the small intestine

"In the figure on the left are seen the artery and vein of a villus. In the right figure are represented…

A statue built on the Giza Plateau in Giza, Egypt, consisting of a lion with a human head. The Sphinx is believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians.

The Great Sphnix

A statue built on the Giza Plateau in Giza, Egypt, consisting of a lion with a human head. The Sphinx…

"The <em>spine</em> or backbone, serves as a support for the whole body. It is made up of a number of seperate bones called vertebrae, between which are placed elastic pads, or cushions, of cartilage." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Spinal column

"The spine or backbone, serves as a support for the whole body. It is made up of a number of…

Side view of a human spinal column.

Spinal column

Side view of a human spinal column.

An antique sculpture.

Statue

An antique sculpture.

Perhaps the earliest people to form real cities in the western region of the world, were a people of mysterious origin called Sumerians. This drawing is a very early Sumerian stone carving showing Sumerian warriors in phalanx.

Stone Carvings of Sumerian Warriors

Perhaps the earliest people to form real cities in the western region of the world, were a people of…

"The overhead movement enables the swimmer to throw himself forward on the water, and to move his arms and legs in a nearly vertical instead of a horizontal plane; the extremities working, as it were, above and beneath the trunk, rather than on either side of it."&mdash;Pettigrew, 1874

Overhand Swimming

"The overhead movement enables the swimmer to throw himself forward on the water, and to move his arms…

"An improvement on the foregoing for long distances is the known as the side stroke. In this method, as the term indicates, the body is thrown more decidedly upon the side."&mdash;Pettigrew, 1874

Side-Stroke Swimming

"An improvement on the foregoing for long distances is the known as the side stroke. In this method,…

"The <em>ribs</em> are long, flat, and curved bones which bend round the chest somewhat like the hoops of a barrel. There are twenty-four ribs, twelve on each side." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Thorax

"The ribs are long, flat, and curved bones which bend round the chest somewhat like the hoops…

"When a bone is broken, blood trickles out between the injured parts, and afterwards gives place to a sticky, watery fluid, which gradually becomes thicker, like a syrup or jelly. This is slowly replaced by a new bone structure and forms a kind of cement to gold together the broken ends." — Blaisedell, 1904

Broken Tibia

"When a bone is broken, blood trickles out between the injured parts, and afterwards gives place to…

An illustration of a human toes.

Toes

An illustration of a human toes.

Spinning Wheel used to make thread.

Spinning Wheel

Spinning Wheel used to make thread.