The abdomen viscera after the removal of the jejunum and ileum. The transverse colon is much more regular than usual. Both the liver and caecum extend lower down than normal. The subdivisions of the abdominal cavity are indicated by dark lines.

Abdomen Laid Open After Removal of Jejunum and Ileum

The abdomen viscera after the removal of the jejunum and ileum. The transverse colon is much more regular…

The abdominal and thoracic viscera of a five months fetus. The large liver and large size if its left lobe at this age should be noted.

Abdomen of Fetus

The abdominal and thoracic viscera of a five months fetus. The large liver and large size if its left…

Abdomen of female showing displacement resulting from tight lacing. The liver is much enlarged, and extends on the left side to the ribs, where it was folded back on itself for over an inch. The pyloric end of the stomach and the beginning of the duodenum are quite superficial below the liver, and all the viscera are displaced downwards.

Abdomen Showing Displacement Caused by Corset

Abdomen of female showing displacement resulting from tight lacing. The liver is much enlarged, and…

Diagrammatic transverse section of abdomen, to show the peritoneum on transverse tracing. A, at level of foramen of Winslow. B, lower down. In A note, one of the vasa brevia arteris passing to the stomach between the layers of the gastrosplenic omentum, and also the foramen of Winslow leading into the lesser sac which lies behind the stomach.

Transverse Section of Abdomen

Diagrammatic transverse section of abdomen, to show the peritoneum on transverse tracing. A, at level…

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver turned up; 2, gall bladder; 3, stomach; 4, large intestine; 5, small intestine.

Abdominal Organs

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver turned up; 2, gall bladder; 3, stomach; 4, large intestine; 5, small…

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver turned up; 2, gall bladder; 3, right kidney; 4, spleen; 5, left kidney.

Abdominal Organs

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver turned up; 2, gall bladder; 3, right kidney; 4, spleen; 5, left kidney.

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver; 2, gall bladder; 3, spleen; 4, pancreas.

Abdominal Organs

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver; 2, gall bladder; 3, spleen; 4, pancreas.

Regions of the abdomen and their contents (edge of costal cartilages in dotted outline)."For convenience of description the abdomen may be artificially divided into nine regions by drawing two circular lines around the body parallel with the cartilages of the ninth ribs, and the highest point of the crests of the ilia; and two vertical lines from the cartilage of the eighth rib on each side to the center of Poupart's ligament. The vicar contained in these different regions are as follows: -- Right Hypochondriac - the right lobe of the liver and gall-bladder, hepatic flexure of the colon, and part of the right kidney. Right Lumbar - ascending colon, part of the right kidney, and some convolutions of the small intestines. Right Inguinal (Iliac) - the caecum, appendix caeci. Epigastric Region - the middle and pyloric end o the stomach, left lobe of the liver, the pancreas, the duodenum, part of the kidneys and the suprarenal capsules. Umbilical Region - the transverse colon, part of the great omentum and mesentery, transverse part of the duodenum, and some convolutions of the jejunum and ileum, and part of both kidneys. Hypogastric Region - convolutions of the small intestines, the bladder in children, and in adults if distended, and the uterus during pregnancy. Left Hypochondriac - the splenic end of the stomach, the spleen and extremity of the pancreas, the splenic flexure of the colon, and part of the left kidney. Left Lumbar - descending color, part of the omentum, part of the left kidney, and some convolutions of the small intestines. Left Inguinal (Iliac) - sigmoid flexure of the colon." — Kimber, 1907.

Regions of the Abdomen and their Contents

Regions of the abdomen and their contents (edge of costal cartilages in dotted outline). "For convenience…

Arteries of the abdominal organs. Labels: 1, the liver; 2, the stomach; 3, upper gut; 4, pancreas; 6, great mesenteric artery; 7, gastric branch; 8, spleen; 9, pyloric branch; 10, pancreatic branch;    11, hepatic artery; 12, duodinal branch; 13, cystic artery; 14, branches to the stomach; 15, 16, spleenic arteries; 17, gastro-epiploic artery; 18, descending aorta; 19, great mesenteric artery.

Arteries of the Abdominal Organs

Arteries of the abdominal organs. Labels: 1, the liver; 2, the stomach; 3, upper gut; 4, pancreas; 6,…

"The spinal column below the twelfth dorsal vertebra at <em>A</em> has been removed, as well as the various layers of the great muscles of the back. The two kidneys with the renal arteries and veins are plainly shown, in their normal positions. The relative positions of adjacent vessels and organs with their names printed upon them are also shown. <em>B</em>, portion of the diaphragm on the left side; <em>C</em>, receptaculum chyli; <em>D</em>, a part of the small intestine on the left side." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Vertical section of the back

"The spinal column below the twelfth dorsal vertebra at A has been removed, as well as the…

Arrangement of the bile duct and liver. <em>a</em> is the intestine cut open, <em>b</em> is the duct which is made by the joining together of many little ducts from the liver, <em>c</em> is the gall-bladder to join the duct from the liver. The gall bladder stores the bile from the liver until it is needed.

Bile Duct

Arrangement of the bile duct and liver. a is the intestine cut open, b is the duct…

Portions of liver, duodenum, and pancreas, showing biliary and pancreatic ducts, head of pancreas turned back.

Biliary Apparatus

Portions of liver, duodenum, and pancreas, showing biliary and pancreatic ducts, head of pancreas turned…

"Organs in the body cavity viewed from the front." &mdash;Davison, 1910

Organs of the body cavity

"Organs in the body cavity viewed from the front." —Davison, 1910

"Diagrammatic cross-section of Cray-fish in the thoracic region, to show relation of circulation and respiration. a, appendage; c, carapace; c.f., flap of carapace overhanging the gills; d, digestive tube; g, gill; h, heart; l, liver; m, body muscles; m', muscles of the appendages; n.c., nerve cord; p.s., paricardial sinus; r, reproductive glands; st, sternal artery; v.a., ventral artery; v.s., ventral blood sinus in which the nerve cord lies." &mdash; Galloway

Cray-fish

"Diagrammatic cross-section of Cray-fish in the thoracic region, to show relation of circulation and…

The stomach, pancreas, liver, and duodenum, with part of the rest of the small intestine and the mesentery; the stomach and liver have been turned up so as to expose the pancreas. Labels: V, stomach; D, D', D', duodenum; L, spleen P, pancreas; R, right kidney; T, jejunum; Vf, gallbladder; h, hepatic duct; c, cystic duct; ch, common bile-duct; 1, aorta, 2, an artery (left coronary) of the stomach; 3, hepatic artery; splenic artery; , superior mesenteric artery; 6, superior mesenteric vein; 7, splenic vein; Vp, portal vein.

Digestive Organs

The stomach, pancreas, liver, and duodenum, with part of the rest of the small intestine and the mesentery;…

Stomach, liver, pancreas, and duodenum of a dog. Labels: a, liver; b, gall bladder; c, biliary canals; d, cystic duct; e, ductus choledocus; f, pancreas; g, pancreatic ducts.

Digestive Organs of a Dog

Stomach, liver, pancreas, and duodenum of a dog. Labels: a, liver; b, gall bladder; c, biliary canals;…

The relation of anterior abdominal digestive organs- left antero-lateral view. Labels: 1, liver; 2, stomach; 3, spleen; 4, colon; a, gastro-hepatic omentum; b, gastro-splenic omentum; c, great omentum; c', its free portion.

Digestive Organs of a Horse

The relation of anterior abdominal digestive organs- left antero-lateral view. Labels: 1, liver; 2,…

"Showing the Relations of the Stomach, Liver, Intestines, Spleen, and other Organs of the Abdomen. <em>A</em>duodenum</em>; <em>B</em>, upper end of the small intestine; <em>C</em>, lower end of the small intestine; <em>D</em>, caecum; <em>E</em>, bladder. The liver and stomach are drawn up and portions of the lower intesting have been cut away." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Digestive system

"Showing the Relations of the Stomach, Liver, Intestines, Spleen, and other Organs of the Abdomen. Aduodenum;…

A diagram of the digestive system.

Digestive System

A diagram of the digestive system.

A diagram showing the path food takes through the digestive system.

Digestive System

A diagram showing the path food takes through the digestive system.

Organs of the digestive system.

Organs of the Digestive System

Organs of the digestive system.

"The heart and blood-vessels diagrammatically represented. L, lung; M, intestine; P, liver; dotted lines represent lymphatic vessels." &mdash;Martin, 1917

Heart

"The heart and blood-vessels diagrammatically represented. L, lung; M, intestine; P, liver; dotted lines…

Diagram of two hepatic lobules of the liver. "The left hand lobule is represented with the intralobular vein cut across; in the right hand one the section takes the course of the intralobular vein. p, interlobular branches of the portal vein; h, intralobular branches of the hepatic veins; s, sublobular vein; c, capillaries of the lobules. The arrows indicate the direction of the course of the blood. The liver cells are only represented in one part of each lobule." &mdash; Kimber, 1907.

Hepatic Lobules of the Liver

Diagram of two hepatic lobules of the liver. "The left hand lobule is represented with the intralobular…

Two diagrams to illustrate the development of the intestinal canal. The figure to the right shows the rotation of the intestinal loop round the superior mesenteric artery. In both figures the parts are supposed to be viewed from the left side.

Development of the Intestinal Canal

Two diagrams to illustrate the development of the intestinal canal. The figure to the right shows the…

Horizontal section of the kidney of a hog. Labels: a, cortical substance; b, medullary substance; c, renal papillae; d, infundibulum; e, ureter cut across.

Kidney of a Hog

Horizontal section of the kidney of a hog. Labels: a, cortical substance; b, medullary substance; c,…

"The Liver seen from Below and Behind. <em>A</em> and </em>B</em>, smaller lobes of the liver; <em>C</em>, portal vein; <em>D</em> hepatic artery; <em>E</em>, inferior vena cava; <em>F</em>, trunk of the left hepatic vein; <em>G</em>, hepatic vein." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Liver

"The Liver seen from Below and Behind. A and B, smaller lobes of the liver; C,…

The large dlangular organ situated in the upper abdominal cavity of vertebrates, whose function is to secrete bile, elaborate and store up glycogen, and otherwise change the blood that passes through it.

Liver

The large dlangular organ situated in the upper abdominal cavity of vertebrates, whose function is to…

Under surface of liver. Labels: 1, right lobe; 2, left lobe; 3, 4, 5, smaller lobes; 9, inferior vena cava; 10, gall-bladder; 11, 11, transverse fissure, or "gate of the liver," containing bile duct, hepatic artery, and portal vein.

Under Surface of Liver

Under surface of liver. Labels: 1, right lobe; 2, left lobe; 3, 4, 5, smaller lobes; 9, inferior vena…

The under surface of the liver. Labels: G.B., gallbladder; H.D., common bile duct; H.A.; hepatic artery; V. P., portal vein; L.Q., lobulus quadratus; L.S., lobulus spigelii; L.C., lobulus caudatus; D.V., ductus venosus; U.V.,umbilical vein.

Liver

The under surface of the liver. Labels: G.B., gallbladder; H.D., common bile duct; H.A.; hepatic artery;…

The liver, lower surface.

Liver

The liver, lower surface.

Posterior view of the liver and diaphragm in situ. Labels: a, left lobe; b, right lobe; c, quadrate lobe; d, spigelian lobe; d', spigelian ligament; just above in the right kidney; e, left lateral ligament; f, right lateral ligament; g, broad ligament; h, hepatic duct; i, piece of the duodenum opened to show, k, opening of the ductus pancreaticus minor, and l, Eminence of Vater; m, vena porta; n, posterior vena cava; o, notch for esophagus.

Liver and Diaphragm of a Horse

Posterior view of the liver and diaphragm in situ. Labels: a, left lobe; b, right lobe; c, quadrate…

A, Liver cells. B, Liver cells, containing various sized particles of fat.

Liver Cells

A, Liver cells. B, Liver cells, containing various sized particles of fat.

The liver from the below and behind, showing the whole of the visceral surface and the posterior area of the parietal surface. The portal fissure has been slightly opened up to show the vessels passing through it; the other fissures are represented in their natural condition-closed. In this liver, which was hardeded in situ, the impressions of the sacculations of the colon were distinctly visible at the colic impression. The round ligament and the remains of the ductus venosus are hidden in the depths of their fissures.

Liver from Behind

The liver from the below and behind, showing the whole of the visceral surface and the posterior area…

The liver from the front, showing the superior, right, and anterior areas of the parietal surface.

Liver from Front

The liver from the front, showing the superior, right, and anterior areas of the parietal surface.

Posterior view of the liver of an ox. Labels: a, left lobe; b, right lobe; c, spigelian lobe; d, quadrate lobe; e, superior border; e', anterior fissure; f, inferior border; f', notch for the umbilical vein; g, gall bladder; h, biliary tubes; i, cystic duct; k, ductus choledochus.

Liver of an Ox

Posterior view of the liver of an ox. Labels: a, left lobe; b, right lobe; c, spigelian lobe; d, quadrate…

Section of liver injected from hepatic vein, showing intralobular capillary network.

Section of Liver Showing Intralobular Capillary Network

Section of liver injected from hepatic vein, showing intralobular capillary network.

Diagram to illustrate the relationship of blood capillaries, bile capillaries, and liver cells. Labels: L, intralobular vein at center of lobule; P, vessel of interlobular plexus from which a blood capillary extends to L; D, a minute bile duct with which a bile capillary communicates.

Liver Structure

Diagram to illustrate the relationship of blood capillaries, bile capillaries, and liver cells. Labels:…

Deformed female liver.

Deformed Liver

Deformed female liver.

Fissures and Lobes of the liver. There are 5 fissures of the liver, which are situated on the inferior and posterior surfaces and arranged in the form of the letter H. There are 5 lobes of the liver, but 3 are mere lobules of the right lobe, formed by the smaller fissures.

Fissures and Lobes of the Liver

Fissures and Lobes of the liver. There are 5 fissures of the liver, which are situated on the inferior…

Lymphatics of the inferior surface of the liver.

Lymphatics of the Liver

Lymphatics of the inferior surface of the liver.

Diagram to illustrate the arrangement of the blood vessels (on right) within the lobule of the liver. The first diagram shows the interlobular veins running around the outerside of the lobule, and sending their capillaries into the lobule to join the central radiation to the periphery of the lobule, where they can join the interlobular bile ducts.

Structure of Liver

Diagram to illustrate the arrangement of the blood vessels (on right) within the lobule of the liver.…

A diagram to illustrate the structure of the liver. A, arrangement of liver lobules around the sublobular branches of the hepatic vein; B, Section of portal canal, showing its contained branches of the portal vein, hepatic artery, and bile duct, surrounded by prolongation of Glisson's capsule.

Structure of the Liver

A diagram to illustrate the structure of the liver. A, arrangement of liver lobules around the sublobular…

The under surface of the liver. Labels: d, right, and s, left lobe; Vh, hepatic vein; Vp, portal vein; Vc, vena cava inferior; Dch, common bile-duct; Dc, cystic duct; Dh, hepatic duct; Vf, gallbladder.

The Under Surface of the Liver

The under surface of the liver. Labels: d, right, and s, left lobe; Vh, hepatic vein; Vp, portal vein;…

Lobules of the liver (1), which are small, granular-looking bodies, of polygonal shape, and about 1/20 inch in diameter, clustered around the sublobular branches of the hepatic veins, and connected together by connective tissue (3), blood-vessels, ducts (2), and lymphatics. Each lobule consists of a mass of hepatic cells, surrounded by a dense capillary plexus, and contains the minute beginnings of a bile-duct, the so-called biliary capillaries; possessing therefore all the essential constituents of a secreting gland. A lobule contains hepatic cells, lobular veins (3), intralobular veins (4), and plexuses of lymphatics, nerves, and bile-ducts.

Lobules of the Liver

Lobules of the liver (1), which are small, granular-looking bodies, of polygonal shape, and about 1/20…

"Anatomy of an Acephalous Mollusc (Mactra): s, stomach; ii, intestine; ag, anterior ganglions; pg, posterior ganglions; mn, muscles; a, anus; h, heart; l, liver; f, foot; sh, shell; ma, mantle; b, branchiae; t, tentacula; r, oral, or respiratory syphon; t, anal syphon." &mdash; Chambers, 1881

Mollusc Anatomy

"Anatomy of an Acephalous Mollusc (Mactra): s, stomach; ii, intestine; ag, anterior ganglions; pg, posterior…

Section of human pancreas, showing pancreatic islands.

Section of Pancreas

Section of human pancreas, showing pancreatic islands.

Diagram of the peritoneum, a serous membrane covering all the contents of the abdominal cavity. Labels: D, diaphragm; L, liver; S, stomach; C, transverse colon; D, transverse duodenum; P, pancreas; I, small intestines; R, rectum; B, bladder.

The Peritoneum

Diagram of the peritoneum, a serous membrane covering all the contents of the abdominal cavity. Labels:…

To show the sites at which communications occur between the portal and systemic circulations.

Communication of the Portal and Systemic Circulation

To show the sites at which communications occur between the portal and systemic circulations.

Lobule of rabbit's liver, vessels and bile ducts injected. Labels: a, central or intralobular vein; v, v, interlobular veins; c, interlobular bile duct.

Rabbit Liver Lobule

Lobule of rabbit's liver, vessels and bile ducts injected. Labels: a, central or intralobular vein;…

"Anatomy of the Snail: a, the mouth; bb, foot; c, anus; dd, lung; e, stomach, covered above by the salivary glands; ff, intestine; g, liver; h, heart; i, aorta; j, gastric artery; l, hepatic artery; k, artery of the foot; mm, abdominal cavity, supplying the place of a cenous sinus; nn, irregular canal in communication with the abdominal cavaty, and carrying the blood to the lung; oo, vessel carrying the blood from the lung to the heart." &mdash; Chambers, 1881

Snail Anatomy

"Anatomy of the Snail: a, the mouth; bb, foot; c, anus; dd, lung; e, stomach, covered above by the salivary…

Dissection of the spleen, liver, and kidneys from behind.

Spleen, Liver, and Kidneys

Dissection of the spleen, liver, and kidneys from behind.

The Stomach and Liver. 1: Esophagus; 2: Cardiac entrance; 3: Large end of stomach; 4: Central portion; 5: Small end of stomach; 6: Pylorus; 7: Portion of Pancreas; 8: Duodenum; 9: Gall duct; 10: Hepatic artery; 11: Left lobe of liver; 12: Gall bladder; 13: Right lobe of liver.

Stomach and Liver

The Stomach and Liver. 1: Esophagus; 2: Cardiac entrance; 3: Large end of stomach; 4: Central portion;…

The stomach chamber and stomach bed shown after stomach has been removed.

Stomach Chamber

The stomach chamber and stomach bed shown after stomach has been removed.

The stomach, pancreas, liver, and duodenum, with part of the rest of the small intestine and the mesentery; the stomach and liver have been turned up so as to expose the pancreas. Labels: V, stomach; D, D',D'', duodenum; L, spleen; P, pancreas; R, right kidney; T, jejunum; Vf, gall bladder; h, hepatic duct; c, cystic duct; ch, common bile duct; 1, aorta; 2, an artery (left coronary) of the stomach; 3, hepatic artery; 4, splenic artery; 5, superior mesenteric artery; 6, superior mesenteric vein; 7, splenic vein; Vp, portal vein.

The Stomach, Pancreas, Liver, and Duodenum

The stomach, pancreas, liver, and duodenum, with part of the rest of the small intestine and the mesentery;…

Section through the abdomen, an inch and a half above the umbilicus. The liver is unusually large in this individual.

Cross Section of the Trunk Above Umbilicus

Section through the abdomen, an inch and a half above the umbilicus. The liver is unusually large in…

Section through the body of the liver at the level of the arch of the seventh rib anteriorly.

Cross Section of the Trunk through the Liver

Section through the body of the liver at the level of the arch of the seventh rib anteriorly.

Section through the third lumbar vertebra and the inferior poles of the kidneys cutting the loop of the transverse colon. Upper surface. The liver is unusually large in this individual.

Cross Section of the Trunk through Third Lumbar Vertebra

Section through the third lumbar vertebra and the inferior poles of the kidneys cutting the loop of…

Section through the liver and stomach, at the level of the xiphoid process.

Cross Section of the Trunk Through the Liver and Stomach

Section through the liver and stomach, at the level of the xiphoid process.

Transverse section through the middle of the first lumbar vertebra, showing the relations of the pancreas.

Transverse Section of the Trunk

Transverse section through the middle of the first lumbar vertebra, showing the relations of the pancreas.

Diagram illustrating the development of veins about the liver. B, dc, ducts of Cuvier, right and left; ca, right and left cardinal veins; o, left omphalo-mesenteric vein, almost shriveled up; u, u', umbilical veins, of which u', the right one has almost disappeared. Between the venae cardinales is seen the outline of the rudimentary liver with its venae hepaticae advehentes, and revehentes. D, ductus venosus; i', hepatic veins; P', venae advehentes; m, mesenteric veins.

Development of Veins in the Liver

Diagram illustrating the development of veins about the liver. B, dc, ducts of Cuvier, right and left;…