"Abatis consisting of trees lying parallel to each other with the branches pointing in the general direction of approach and interlaced. All leaves and small twigs should be removed and the stiff ends of branches pointed." — Moss, 1914

Abatis

"Abatis consisting of trees lying parallel to each other with the branches pointing in the general direction…

"At the command <em>aim</em> raise the piece with both hands and support the butt firmly against the hollow of the right shoulder." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Aim

"At the command aim raise the piece with both hands and support the butt firmly against the…

"Left eye closed, right eye looking through the notch of the rear sight so as to perceive the object aimed at it." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Aim

"Left eye closed, right eye looking through the notch of the rear sight so as to perceive the object…

"In aiming kneeling, the left elbow rests on the left knee, point of elbow i nfront of kneecap." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Aim kneeling

"In aiming kneeling, the left elbow rests on the left knee, point of elbow i nfront of kneecap." —…

"In aiming, lying down, raise the piece with both hands; rest on both elbows and press the butt firmly against the right shoulder." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Aim lying down

"In aiming, lying down, raise the piece with both hands; rest on both elbows and press the butt firmly…

"In aiming sitting, the elbows are supported by the knees." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Aim sitting

"In aiming sitting, the elbows are supported by the knees." — Moss, 1914

The Battle of Antietam (also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, particularly in the South), fought on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, and Antietam Creek, as part of the Maryland Campaign, was the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with about 23,000 casualties.

Battle of Antietam

The Battle of Antietam (also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, particularly in the South), fought on…

A firearm design where a sliding charger is positioned under the barrel, allowing for faster reloading times.

Fire Arm

A firearm design where a sliding charger is positioned under the barrel, allowing for faster reloading…

An illustration of the army insignia.

Army Insignia

An illustration of the army insignia.

Order to break rank and spread out as skirmishers on the battlefield.

As Skirmishers

Order to break rank and spread out as skirmishers on the battlefield.

Order to break rank and spread out as skirmishers on the battlefield.

As Skirmishers Right

Order to break rank and spread out as skirmishers on the battlefield.

"Raise both arms laterally until horizontal; swing both simultaneously upward until vertical and return to the horizontal; repeat several times." &mdash; Moss, 1914

As skirmishers, guide center, march

"Raise both arms laterally until horizontal; swing both simultaneously upward until vertical and return…

"Raise both arms laterally until horizontal; hold the arm on the side of the guide steadily in the horizontal position; swing the other upward until vertical and return it to the horizontal; repeat several times." &mdash; Moss, 1914

As skirmishers, guide right (left), march

"Raise both arms laterally until horizontal; hold the arm on the side of the guide steadily in the horizontal…

"Raise both arms laterally until horizontal." &mdash; Moss, 1914

As skirmishers, march

"Raise both arms laterally until horizontal." — Moss, 1914

Order given to assemble the troops.

Assemble

Order given to assemble the troops.

"Raise the arm vertically to its full extent and describe horizontal circles." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Assemble, march

"Raise the arm vertically to its full extent and describe horizontal circles." — Moss, 1914

An illustration of four various axes: "1, Horseman's hammer of about the time of Edward IV; 2, Martel-de-fer, time of Henry VIII; 3, Martel-de-fer, time of Edward VI; 4, Martel-de-fer with hand-gun, time of Queen Elizabeth." -Century, 1889

Four Axes

An illustration of four various axes: "1, Horseman's hammer of about the time of Edward IV; 2, Martel-de-fer,…

This is a military insignia for "the junior order of moose."

Military Badge

This is a military insignia for "the junior order of moose."

"A band or sash worn partly as a military and partly as a heraldic symbol. It passes round the waist as a girdle, or passes over the left shoulder and is brought down obliquely under the right arm, or is suspended from the right shoulder in such a way as to sustain a sword." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Baldrick

"A band or sash worn partly as a military and partly as a heraldic symbol. It passes round the waist…

"Amoung the larger kinds of military weapons in use before the invention of gunpowder. The balista, the catapulta, the scorpion, and the onger, propelled large and heav missiles, chiefly through the reaction of a tightly-twisted rope of hemp, flax, catgut, sinew, or hair; or else by a violent movement of levers." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Ballista

"Amoung the larger kinds of military weapons in use before the invention of gunpowder. The balista,…

An illustration of military barracks. Barracks are living quarters for personnel on a military post. They are typically very plain and all of the buildings in the housing unit are often uniform structures.

Barracks

An illustration of military barracks. Barracks are living quarters for personnel on a military post.…

A French Jacobin, born in Province, in 1755, of an ancient family; served as second lieutenant in the regiment of Languedoc until 1775. He made, about this time, a voyage to the Isle-de-France, the governor of which was one of his relations, and entered into the garrison of Pondicherry. On his return, he gave himself up to gambling and women, and dissipated his fortune. The Revolution broke out. He immediately showed himself an opponent of the Court, and had a seat in the <em>tiers-etat</em>, while his brother was sitting in that of the nobility. July 14, 1789, he took part in the attack upon the Bastille, and Aug. 10, 1792, upon the Tuileries. In 1792 he was elected a member of the National Convention, and voted for the unconditional death of Louis XVI. He was sent, in 1793, to the South of France, and commanded the left wing of the besieging army under Dugommier, and it was here that he first met Napoleon Bonaparte, then captain of artillery. The patriotic reputation of Barras was so well established that he abd Freron were the only representatives not denounced by the popular societies. Robespierre, however, was friend of his, and often wished to arrest him. Barras, knowing this, became one of the principle actors of the 9th Thermidor, and put himself at the head of the troops which surrounded Robespierre at the Hotel de Ville. In 1794 he was named one of the Committee of Public Safety, and became a great enemy to the members of the members of the "Mountain." In February, 1795, he was elected President of the Convention, and, in that capacity, declared Paris in a state of siege, when the Assembly was attacked by the populace. Afterward, when the Convention was assailed, Bonaparte, by Barras' advice, was appointed to command the artillery; and that general, on the 13th Vendemaire, decisively repressed the royalist movement. For his services, Barras was now named one of the Directory, and took a prominent part in the changes which that body unerwent until Napoleon's <em>coup d'etat</em> on the 18th Brumaire, which effectually overthrew the power of Barrras and his colleagues. His life, from this date, was, generally speaking, one of retirement. He died in Paris, Jan. 29, 1829. His "Memoirs" appeared in 1895.

Comte de Barras

A French Jacobin, born in Province, in 1755, of an ancient family; served as second lieutenant in the…

(died 1831) Colonel in Rhode Island militia.

Colonel William Barton

(died 1831) Colonel in Rhode Island militia.

Basinets

Basinets

Basinets

"Batering-ram, an engine for battering down the walls of besieged places. The ancients employed two different engines of this kind-- one suspended in a frame, the other movable on wheels or rollers. They consisted of a beam or spar with a massive metal head, and were in motion either by a direct application of manual force or by means of cords or pulleys." -Vaughan, 1906

Battering Ram

"Batering-ram, an engine for battering down the walls of besieged places. The ancients employed two…

A battlefield refers to the location of a battle. Generally, a battle is a conceptual component in the hierarchy of combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, wherein each group will seek to defeat the others within the scope of a military campaign, and are well defined in duration, area and force commitment.

Battlefield

A battlefield refers to the location of a battle. Generally, a battle is a conceptual component in the…

"At the second command sake the position of guard; at the same time throw the rifle smartly to the front, grasp the rifle with the left hand just below the lower band, fingers between the stock and gun sling, barrel turned slightly to the left, the right hand grasping the small of the stock about 6 inches in front of the right hip, elbows free from the body, bayonet point at the height of the chin." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Bayonet guard

"At the second command sake the position of guard; at the same time throw the rifle smartly to the front,…

"The force of the thrust is delivered principally with the right arm, the left being used to direct the bayonet. The points at which the attack should be directed are, in order of their importance, stomach, chest, head, neck, and limbs." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Bayonet thrust

"The force of the thrust is delivered principally with the right arm, the left being used to direct…

A Venezuelan military and political leader. He helped lead Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela to independence during his lifetime.

Simón Bolívar

A Venezuelan military and political leader. He helped lead Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru,…

"Parts shown are handle, A; sleeve, B; safety lock, C; cocking peice, D; safety lug, E; extractor, F; extractor collar, G; locking lugs, H; extractor tongue groove, I, and gas escape hole, J." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Bolt mechanism

"Parts shown are handle, A; sleeve, B; safety lock, C; cocking peice, D; safety lug, E; extractor, F;…

"Place the cutoff at the center notch; cock the arm and turn the safety lock to a vertical position, raise the bolt handle and draw out the bolt." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Bolt mechanism dismounting

"Place the cutoff at the center notch; cock the arm and turn the safety lock to a vertical position,…

A military and political leader of France in the early 19th century.

Napoleon Bonaparte

A military and political leader of France in the early 19th century.

This medal was presented in honor of William Ward Burrows (1785-1813) who was slain while in command on the sloop-of-war <em>Enterprise</em>.

The Burrows Medal

This medal was presented in honor of William Ward Burrows (1785-1813) who was slain while in command…

An illustration of a Calvary charging.

Calvary Charge

An illustration of a Calvary charging.

"Four such trenches radiating from a common central chimney will give one flue for use whatever may be the direction of the wind." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Camp chimney

"Four such trenches radiating from a common central chimney will give one flue for use whatever may…

"Camp kettles can be hung on a support consisting of a green pole lying in the crotches of two upright posts of the same character. A narrow trench for the fire, about 1 foot deep, dug under the pole, not only protects the fire from the wind but saves fuel." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Camp kettle

"Camp kettles can be hung on a support consisting of a green pole lying in the crotches of two upright…

"A still greater economy of fuel can be effected by digging a similar trench in the direction of the wind and slightly narrower than the diameter of the kettles. The kettles are then placed on the trench and the space between tthe kettles filled in with stones, clay, etc., leaving the flue running beneath the kettles. The draft can be improved by building a chimney of stones, clay, etc., at the leeward end of the flue." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Camp kitchen

"A still greater economy of fuel can be effected by digging a similar trench in the direction of the…

An illustration of makeshift military camp.

Military Camp

An illustration of makeshift military camp.

An illustration of one of the cannons salvaged from the wreck of the USS Oneida.

Cannon

An illustration of one of the cannons salvaged from the wreck of the USS Oneida.

An illustration of a cannon.

Cannon

An illustration of a cannon.

The Serpentine was a cannon used in the sixteenth century.

Serpentine Cannon

The Serpentine was a cannon used in the sixteenth century.

"U.S. Carbine, CAL. .30, M1." -War, 1944 A carbine is a firearm similar to a rifle or musket, but generally shorter and of lesser power. Many carbines, especially modern designs, were developed from rifles, being essentially shortened versions of full rifles firing the same ammunition, although often at a lower velocity.

Carbine

"U.S. Carbine, CAL. .30, M1." -War, 1944 A carbine is a firearm similar to a rifle or musket, but generally…

Casque with nasal and mail hood.

Casque

Casque with nasal and mail hood.

"Heavy obstacles employed in Manchuria by the Russians." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Cavalry barrier

"Heavy obstacles employed in Manchuria by the Russians." — Moss, 1914

"A formidable obstacle against cavalry consists of railroad ties planted at intervals of 10 feet with tops four and a half feet above the ground, and connected by a line of rails spiked securely to each." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Cavalry obstacle

"A formidable obstacle against cavalry consists of railroad ties planted at intervals of 10 feet with…

Order given to stop hostilities on the battlefield. Soldiers stop shooting their weapons when this signal is given.

Cease Firing

Order given to stop hostilities on the battlefield. Soldiers stop shooting their weapons when this signal…

"The hand on the side toward which the change of direction is to be made is carried across the body to the opposite shoulder, forearm horizontal; then swing in a horizontal plane, arm extended, pointing in the new direction." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Change direction

"The hand on the side toward which the change of direction is to be made is carried across the body…

This is the command used to instruct the unit to change direction.

Change Direction

This is the command used to instruct the unit to change direction.

"They are usually made in sections of manageable length chained together at the ends." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Cheveaux de frise

"They are usually made in sections of manageable length chained together at the ends." — Moss,…

Lord Clive was a British officer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company.

Robert Clive

Lord Clive was a British officer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India…

An illustration of military personnel measuring close intervals.

Close Military Interval Measurement

An illustration of military personnel measuring close intervals.

An illustration of a military outfit in a box.

Clothes in Box

An illustration of a military outfit in a box.

"Being at <em>club rifle</em>, order arms is resumed by command." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Club rifle

"Being at club rifle, order arms is resumed by command." — Moss, 1914

"Being at <em>club rifle</em>, order arms is resumed by command." &mdash; Moss, 1914

Club rifle

"Being at club rifle, order arms is resumed by command." — Moss, 1914

Colonial soldiers restraining a man.

Colonial Soldiers

Colonial soldiers restraining a man.

Command signal used to order troops to begin firing their weapons.

Commence Firing

Command signal used to order troops to begin firing their weapons.

Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style&ndash; 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland. He was one of the commanders of the New Model Army which defeated the royalists in the English Civil War. After the execution of King Charles I in 1649, Cromwell dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England, conquered Ireland and Scotland, and ruled as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658.

Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style– 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military…

Two soldiers firing their weapons. One is standing behind a tree, while the other is in the crouching position.

Firing from the Crouched and Standing Positions

Two soldiers firing their weapons. One is standing behind a tree, while the other is in the crouching…

"The mural crown is a circle of fold embattled, and it is associated with military success in sieges."&mdash;Aveling, 1891

Mural Crown

"The mural crown is a circle of fold embattled, and it is associated with military success in sieges."—Aveling,…

This illustration shows three different views of the De Haviland 4 Reconnaissance Plane. This plane has a 400 horsepower Liberty Engine.

De Haviland 4 Reconnaissance Plane

This illustration shows three different views of the De Haviland 4 Reconnaissance Plane. This plane…