This apparatus represents the single barrel of the double-acting pump of Bianchi.

Air-pump

This apparatus represents the single barrel of the double-acting pump of Bianchi.

"<em>A</em>, a portion of the colon laid open to show the valve between the large and small intestine; <em>B</em>, the caecum." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Vermiform appendix

"A, a portion of the colon laid open to show the valve between the large and small intestine;…

"The pressure of the atmosphere may be easily shown by the tube and piston. suppose there is an orifice to be opened or closed by the valve b, as the piston a is moved up or down in its barrel. The valve being fastened by a hinge on the upper side, on pushing the piston down, it will open by the pressure of the air against it, and the air will make its escape. But when the piston is at the bottom of the barrel, on attempting to raise it again, towards the top, the valve is closed by the force of the external air acting upon it. If, therefore, the piston be drawn up in this state, it must be against the pressure of the atmosphere, the whole weight of which, to an extent equal to the diameter of the piston, must be lifted, while there will remain a vacuum or void space below it in the tube. if the piston be only three inches in diameter, it will require the full strength of a man to draw it to the top of the barrel, and when raised, if suddenly let go, it will be forced back again by the weight of the air, and will stright the bottom with great violence." &mdash;Comstock, 1850

Atmospheric Pressure

"The pressure of the atmosphere may be easily shown by the tube and piston. suppose there is an orifice…

"Courtney's Automatic Buoy. A, cylinder, 27 ft. 6 in. long; B, mooring shackle; C, rudder; D, buoy; E, diaphragm; F, ball valves; G, air inlet tubes; H, air (compressed) outlet tube to whistle; I, compressed air inlet to buoy; K, manhole; L, steps; N, whistle." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Automatic Buoy

"Courtney's Automatic Buoy. A, cylinder, 27 ft. 6 in. long; B, mooring shackle; C, rudder; D, buoy;…

The modern ship- or goose-barnacle after removal of the right valve.

Ship Barnacle

The modern ship- or goose-barnacle after removal of the right valve.

Diagram of the course of the blood. Labels: RA, right auricle; RV. right ventricles; LV and LA, left auricle and left ventricle; VCI and VCS, vena cava inferior and superior; Ao aorta; Lg, lungs; Al, alimentary canal; Th D, thoracic duct; Lct,lacteals; HA and HV, hepatic artery and vein.

Blood Flow Diagram

Diagram of the course of the blood. Labels: RA, right auricle; RV. right ventricles; LV and LA, left…

Diagram of the rush of blood when the heart beats. The valves (v) open above are closed below while the valves (s) closed above are open below.

The Course of Blood in the Heart

Diagram of the rush of blood when the heart beats. The valves (v) open above are closed below while…

"The carburetor furnishes the gasoline vapor for the cylinders. It is connected to the engine by a crooked pipe called the intake manifold. After the gasoline has been exploded a valve opens and allows the burned gases to escape through another pipe, called the exhaust manifold." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 07: Carburetor

"The carburetor furnishes the gasoline vapor for the cylinders. It is connected to the engine by a crooked…

"A valve in pumps with a single flap, hinged at one edge, and consisting of a plate of leather a little larger than the valve aperture. The valve box is generally one and a half times the diameter of the valve opening." &mdash; Williams, 1889

Clack-valve

"A valve in pumps with a single flap, hinged at one edge, and consisting of a plate of leather a little…

"Air is pumped down through shaft A through a downward opening valve into a given chamber. Connector V is able to be screwed into any strong vessel where it is desired to condense air." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Condenser

"Air is pumped down through shaft A through a downward opening valve into a given chamber. Connector…

This illustration depicts a flue damper used to serve as the valve mechanism which restricts home smoke access.

Flue Damper

This illustration depicts a flue damper used to serve as the valve mechanism which restricts home smoke…

"To avoid friction and heat, the piston is not in contact with the cylinder in which it works."

Deleuil's Air-pump

"To avoid friction and heat, the piston is not in contact with the cylinder in which it works."

"Waldheimia flavescens. Interior of dorsal valve. c, c', cardial process; b', hinge-plate; s, dental sockets; l, loop; q, crura; a, a', adductor impressions; c, accessory divaricator; b, peduncle muscles; ss, septum." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Dorsal Valve

"Waldheimia flavescens. Interior of dorsal valve. c, c', cardial process; b', hinge-plate; s, dental…

"Terebratula virea. Interior of dorsal valve. l, loop; b, hinge-plate; c, cardinal process." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Dorsal Valve

"Terebratula virea. Interior of dorsal valve. l, loop; b, hinge-plate; c, cardinal process." —…

"Rhynchonella psittacea. Interior of doral valve. s, sockets; b, dental plates; V, mouth; de, labial appendage in itsnatural position; d, appendage extended or unrolled." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Dorsal Valve

"Rhynchonella psittacea. Interior of doral valve. s, sockets; b, dental plates; V, mouth; de, labial…

"A transverse section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, used for heavy forge work."&mdash;Finley, 1917

Transverse section of a double-column hammer

"A transverse section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, used for heavy forge work."—Finley,…

"A section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, fitted with a valve v provided with three pistons."&mdash;Finley, 1917

Valve casing of a double-column hammer

"A section through the valve casing of a double-column hammer, fitted with a valve v provided with three…

"Handle A opens and closes valves B and G. Steam is injected through pipe S which flushes any air/water out of C. G is closed and cold water enters through I causing a vacuum drawing water up through F." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Savery's Engine

"Handle A opens and closes valves B and G. Steam is injected through pipe S which flushes any air/water…

This is a valve controlling faucet used in the release of liquids or gas.

Valve Faucet

This is a valve controlling faucet used in the release of liquids or gas.

"The operation of the force-pump is similar to that of the suction-pump. The outlet-valve generally opens from the cylinder, the piston being made solid." &mdash; Avery, 1895

Force pump

"The operation of the force-pump is similar to that of the suction-pump. The outlet-valve generally…

"Porter's governor, a modification of Watt's original model."&mdash;Finley, 1917

Porter's governor

"Porter's governor, a modification of Watt's original model."—Finley, 1917

"Watt's method of regulation, which consists in varying the pressure of the steam supplied to the engine by opening or closing more or less a valve in the supply pipe."&mdash;Finley, 1917

Watt's governor

"Watt's method of regulation, which consists in varying the pressure of the steam supplied to the engine…

Diagram to illustrate the action (pumping) of the heart. Labels: aur., auricle; vent., ventricle; v, veins; a, aorta; m, mitral valve; s, semilunar valves. In A, auricle contracting, ventricle dilated, mitral valve open, semilunar valves closed. In B, auricle dilated, ventricle contracting, mitral valve closed, semilunar valves open.

Diagram Showing the Pumping of the Heart

Diagram to illustrate the action (pumping) of the heart. Labels: aur., auricle; vent., ventricle; v,…

A diagram showing the peculiar fibrous structure of the heart and the shape of the valves. A, triscupid valve; B, bicuspid valve; C, semilunar valves of the aorta; D, semilunar valves of the pulmonary artery.

Heart Valves

A diagram showing the peculiar fibrous structure of the heart and the shape of the valves. A, triscupid…

Cavities of the right side of the heart, with their valves.

Cavities of the Right Side of the Heart

Cavities of the right side of the heart, with their valves.

"<em>A, B</em>, right pulmonary veins, <em>S</em>, openings of the left pulmonary veins; <em>E, D, C, aortic valves; <em>R</em>, aorta, <em>P</em>pulmonary artery, <em>O</em>, pulmonic valves, <em>H</em>, mitraal valve; <em>K</em>, columnae carneae, <em>M</em> right ventricular cavity." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Cavities of the heart

"A, B, right pulmonary veins, S, openings of the left pulmonary veins; E, D, C,

The bases of the ventricle of the heart, showing the auriculoventricular, aortic, and pulmonary orifices and their valves.

Ventricle of the Heart

The bases of the ventricle of the heart, showing the auriculoventricular, aortic, and pulmonary orifices…

A machine designed to suppress the dead space which limits the efficiency of ordinary air-pumps.

Kravogl's Air-pump

A machine designed to suppress the dead space which limits the efficiency of ordinary air-pumps.

"Diagram showing the muscular system. M, ventral, N, dorsal valve; l, loop; V, mouth; Z, extremity of intestine; a, adductor; c, divaricators; c', accessory divaricators; b, ventral adjustors; c, peduncular muscles; b''', dorsal adjustors; P, peduncle." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Muscular System

"Diagram showing the muscular system. M, ventral, N, dorsal valve; l, loop; V, mouth; Z, extremity of…

"Anatomy of the Oyster. A. Hinge or anterior umbonal end of the left valve of an adult oyster, upon which the soft parts of the animal are represented as they lie in situ, but with the greater part of the mantle of the right side removed. a u. The auricle of the right side of the heart contracted. B. Posterior or ventral end of the left valve, which in life is usually directed upward more or less, and during the act of feeding and respiration is separated slightly from the margin of its fellow of the opposite side to admit the water for respiration, and which also contains the animal's food in suspension. b m. Body-mass, traversed superficially by the generative ducts g e. b j. The organ of Bojanus, or 'renal' organ, of the right side of the oyster. (The ducts which it sends into the manle are not shown, nor is its connection with the genito-urinary sinus s indicated.)" &mdash; Winston's Encyclopedia, 1919

Oyster

"Anatomy of the Oyster. A. Hinge or anterior umbonal end of the left valve of an adult oyster, upon…

"To avoid friction and heat, the piston is not in contact with the cylinder in which it works."

Piston and Barrel of Deleuil's Air-pump

"To avoid friction and heat, the piston is not in contact with the cylinder in which it works."

"Liquid is drawn up pipe F by pistons C and D. Once the liquid passes through the first set of valves, the pressure of the descending piston forces the liquid up valves I and J into container H and finally out of hose L." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Fire Engine Pump

"Liquid is drawn up pipe F by pistons C and D. Once the liquid passes through the first set of valves,…

"Liquid is drawn up the pipe through the valve H. Piston G pushes the liquid through pipe, M, and into the chamber, K which builds pressure from condensing air. Tube I leads to a manual release jet." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Forcing Pump

"Liquid is drawn up the pipe through the valve H. Piston G pushes the liquid through pipe, M, and into…

"Liquid is pumped up through pipe A, through valve H. The airtight piston G allows the liquid to pass up into the spout F where it is discharged from the pump." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Lifting Pump

"Liquid is pumped up through pipe A, through valve H. The airtight piston G allows the liquid to pass…

"The stomach pump injects liquid into a poisoned person's stomach and then withdraws the liquid and poison mixture. Bulbs C and D contain valves that open and close depending if B is upright or inverted." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Stomach Pump

"The stomach pump injects liquid into a poisoned person's stomach and then withdraws the liquid and…

"The suction pump uses suction, water pressure and one-way valves to suction water from a well or other source, and to expel water through A." &mdash;Hallock 1905

Suction Pump

"The suction pump uses suction, water pressure and one-way valves to suction water from a well or other…

A safety-valve, in which a weight is employed. Here a is the valve, b b the boiler, c c the valve-seat, usually, like the valve itself, made of gunmetal, d the lever turning upon a fixed center at e, and pressing upon the valve by a steel point f, a guide for the lever g a weight which may be shifted backwards and forwards according to the pressure desired.

Lever Safety-valve

A safety-valve, in which a weight is employed. Here a is the valve, b b the boiler, c c the valve-seat,…

"Silique, the fruit of certain cruciferous plants, consisting of a pair of valves which seperate from a central septum"&mdash;Finley, 1917

Silique

"Silique, the fruit of certain cruciferous plants, consisting of a pair of valves which seperate from…

A form of spring safety-valve, in which a series of bent springs h h h are placed alternately in opposite directions, their extremities sliding upon the rod i, and the springs being kept down by the crossbar k; a being the valve, c the valve-seat, and b b part of the boiler.

Lever Spring Safety-valve

A form of spring safety-valve, in which a series of bent springs h h h are placed alternately in opposite…

"The valve gear for operating the steam hammer is shown separately, the cylinder and valve chest being in section."&mdash;Finley, 1917

Valve gear of a steam hammer

"The valve gear for operating the steam hammer is shown separately, the cylinder and valve chest being…

"It consists of a common metallic syringe, A, screwed to a cylindrical valve box, B, which contains two ovoid cavities, in each of which there is a loose, spherical metallic valve. The ends of the cavities are peirced, and the valves fit exactly, either of the orifices. Thus it makes no difference which end of the valve-box is upturned, the valve falling down and closing the orifices in either direction. The flexible india rubber tubes, C D, are attached to the opposite ends of the cavities." &mdash;Comstock, 1850

Stomach Pump

"It consists of a common metallic syringe, A, screwed to a cylindrical valve box, B, which contains…

This is a valve which regulates the flow of a fluid by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.

Valve

This is a valve which regulates the flow of a fluid by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various…

The valve closet has a valve or flap at the exit of the bowl with a water-tight seal to retain a pool of water in the pan. When the toilet is flushed, the valve is opened and the water in the pan flows rapidly out of the bowl into the drains, carrying the waste with it.

Water Valve Closet

The valve closet has a valve or flap at the exit of the bowl with a water-tight seal to retain a pool…

A device that regulates the flow of a fluid gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically pipe fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category.

Coarse Threading Valve

A device that regulates the flow of a fluid gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries by opening,…

"Four-way cock, a cock having two passages in the plug and four passage-ways for delivery, or one which unites four pipes so as to deliver from either one at will, according to the position of the valve. Such a cock is used in the continuous air-brake." -Whitney, 1911

Four-Way Cock Valve

"Four-way cock, a cock having two passages in the plug and four passage-ways for delivery, or one which…

This valve is a tool which is able to regulate the flow of either liquids or gases. Works by either opening, closing, or semi obstructing the current passageway of substance.

Faucet Valve

This valve is a tool which is able to regulate the flow of either liquids or gases. Works by either…

A structure in a hollow organ like the heart with a flap to insure one-way flow of fluid through it

Fine Threading Valve

A structure in a hollow organ like the heart with a flap to insure one-way flow of fluid through it

Control consisting of a mechanical device for controlling the flow of a fluid

Fluid Valve

Control consisting of a mechanical device for controlling the flow of a fluid

An illustration of a lever safety valve. "Suppose the valve A is just suppose to open when the steam pressure under it is 120 lb. per square inch, that mean area of the valve exposed to steam pressure is 4 square inches, the weight of the valve 4ln., the distance C D being 3 inches the centre of gravity of the lever 7 inches from D, and its weight 6 lb.; where must the weight E - which is 50 lb. - be placed on the lever? The total upward force on the valve is 120 &times; 4 - 4 = 476 lb., and the moment of this force about D is 476 &times; 3 = 1428. This is the only negative moment, all other forces tending to turn the lever the opposite way." -New, 1891

Lever Safety Valve

An illustration of a lever safety valve. "Suppose the valve A is just suppose to open when the steam…

A device fitted to a pipeline or orifice in which the closure member is either rotated or moved in some way as to control or stop flow.

Mechanical Valve

A device fitted to a pipeline or orifice in which the closure member is either rotated or moved in some…

A type of valve in which the rotation of a passage or passages in a transverse plug regulates the flow of liquid or gas through the attached pipes. The common stopcock is the simplest form of rotary valve.

Rotary Valve

A type of valve in which the rotation of a passage or passages in a transverse plug regulates the flow…

This steam valve design features revolving cup valves which are able to cut off steam at any given revolution inside an engine.

Steam Valve

This steam valve design features revolving cup valves which are able to cut off steam at any given revolution…

Any of various devices that regulate the flow of gases, liquids, or loose materials through piping or through apertures by opening, closing, or obstructing ports or passageways.

Water Distribution Valve

Any of various devices that regulate the flow of gases, liquids, or loose materials through piping or…

"Longitudinal section of valves. A, ventral, B, dorsal valves; l, loop; q, crura; ss, septum; c, cardinal process." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Valves

"Longitudinal section of valves. A, ventral, B, dorsal valves; l, loop; q, crura; ss, septum; c, cardinal…

Valves of a vein. In the lower part of the figure are seen the parietal valve; the upper part shows the mouth of a vein guarded by a valve.

Valves of a Vein

Valves of a vein. In the lower part of the figure are seen the parietal valve; the upper part shows…

The valves of the veins.

Valves of the Veins

The valves of the veins.

Diagram showing valves of veins. A, part of a vein laid open and spread out with two pairs of valves. B, longitudinal section of a vein, showing the apposition of the edges of the valves in their closed state. C, portion of a distended vein, exhibiting a swelling in the situation of a pair of valves.

Valves of Veins

Diagram showing valves of veins. A, part of a vein laid open and spread out with two pairs of valves.…

Valves of veins. A shows a vein cut open between the segments of two valves. B shows appearance of valves closed and open.

Valves of Veins

Valves of veins. A shows a vein cut open between the segments of two valves. B shows appearance of valves…

A, vein with valves open. B, vein with valves closed: stream of blood passing off by lateral channel.

Blood Flow in the Valves of Veins

A, vein with valves open. B, vein with valves closed: stream of blood passing off by lateral channel.

"<em>A</em>, part of a vein laid open, with two pairs of valves; <em>B</em>, longitudinal section of a vein, showing the valves closed." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Vein

"A, part of a vein laid open, with two pairs of valves; B, longitudinal section of…