"The air pump is an engine by which the air can be pumped out of a vessel, or withdrawn from it. The vessel so exhausted, is called a receive, and the space thus left in the vessel, after withdrawing the air, is called a vacuum. The principles on which the air pump is constructed are readily understood, and are the same in all instruments of this kind, though the form of the instrument itself is often considerably modified. Let R be a glass vessel, or receiver, closed at the top, and open at the bottom, standing on a perfectly smooth surface, which is called the plate of the air pump. Through thie plate is an aperture, which communicates with the inside of the receiver, and the barrel of the pump. The piston rod works air tight through the barrel. At the extremity of the barrel, there is a valve which opens upwards, and is closed as the piston rises." —Comstock, 1850

Air Pump

"The air pump is an engine by which the air can be pumped out of a vessel, or withdrawn from it. The…

"The piston rods are furnished with racks, or teeth, and are worked by the toothed wheel a, which is turned backwards and forwards, by the lever and handle b. The exhaustion pipe c, leads to the plate on which the receiver stants. The valves v, n, u, and m, all open upwards." —Comstock, 1850

Air Pump

"The piston rods are furnished with racks, or teeth, and are worked by the toothed wheel a, which is…

"The air pump is an instrument for removing a gas from a closed vessel, the essential parts are shown." -Avery 1895

Air Pump

"The air pump is an instrument for removing a gas from a closed vessel, the essential parts are shown."…

An airship or dirigible is an aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air using rudders and propellers or other thrust. Unlike other aerodynamic aircraft such as fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters, which produce lift by moving a wing through the air, aerostatics aircraft, such as airships and hot air balloons, stay aloft by filling a large cavity, such as a balloon, with a lifting gas.

Cable Air Ship

An airship or dirigible is an aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air using rudders…

"A machine for remobing air out of any given vessel, or forcing it in." — Williams, 1889

Air-pump

"A machine for remobing air out of any given vessel, or forcing it in." — Williams, 1889

"The dotted line shows the course of the branchial artery." — Blaisedell, 1904

Brancial artery

"The dotted line shows the course of the branchial artery." — Blaisedell, 1904

"The dotted line shows the course of the right femoral artery." — Blaisedell, 1904

Femoral artery

"The dotted line shows the course of the right femoral artery." — Blaisedell, 1904

"Section of Bamboo, showing an angular network of cells, and the round apertures of pitted vessels." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Bamboo

"Section of Bamboo, showing an angular network of cells, and the round apertures of pitted vessels."…

"Sectional view of diving bell and barge, employed on the River Clyde. All the appliances are worked by steam, rendering manual labour unnecessary. A is the Bell, which is raised and lowered by means of the Chain and Steam Winch B. c c are Seats within the Bell; d d, Footboards. E, Air-pipe entering the Bell at f, the air being supplied by Air-pump G driven by the Engine H. J is a Steam Crane for raising or lowering material. K K, Steam Winches for working moorings and shifting position of the barge." -Hill, 1921

Barge with Diving Bell

"Sectional view of diving bell and barge, employed on the River Clyde. All the appliances are worked…

During the War of 1812, James Biddle was first lieutenant in USS Wasp. He led the boarding party against the HMS Frolic. He sprang into the rigging and with his own hand struck the colors of the Frolic. The legislature of Pennsylvania voted Lieutenant Biddle thanks and a sword, and the leading men of Philadelphia gave him a silver urn.

The Biddle Urn

During the War of 1812, James Biddle was first lieutenant in USS Wasp. He led the boarding party against…

"Burning of the American merchantman "Harvey Birch," of New York, Captain Nelson, in the British Channel, by the Confederate Steamer "Nashville," Captain Peagrim, November 17th, 1861. On the 17th of November, 1861, the "Harvey Birch," a splendid New York vessel of 1,480 tons and valued at $150,000, was on her way from Havre to New York in ballast, commanded by Captain Nelson, with officers and crew, all told, twenty-nine men. In latitude 49.6 north, longitude 9.52 west, she was brought to by the Confederate steamer "Nashville," and boarded by an officer and boat's crew, who took the crew of the "Birch" on board the "Nashville," robbed the vessel of everything valuable, and then set fire to it, the commander, Peagrim, watching her destruction from his own deck." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Harvey Birch

"Burning of the American merchantman "Harvey Birch," of New York, Captain Nelson, in the British Channel,…

Adrian Block and his companions on Manhattan Island buidling a vessel.

Boatbuilding on Manhattan Island

Adrian Block and his companions on Manhattan Island buidling a vessel.

A heating unit designed to heat by boiling water, producing steam, and circulating it to radiators or steam baseboard units throughout the home.

Steam Boiler

A heating unit designed to heat by boiling water, producing steam, and circulating it to radiators or…

"Riding-boom. A boat-boom or long spar working in a hinge or goose-neck, designed to be lowered from abreast the fore-rigging to a horizontal position at right angles with the keel of the vessel ... a, life-line; b, lift; c, riding-boom; d, rope ladder; e, outhaul; f, after-boom guy." -Whitney, 1911

Riding Boom

"Riding-boom. A boat-boom or long spar working in a hinge or goose-neck, designed to be lowered…

This four sided bottle is a rigid container. A glass bottle is a bottle created from glass. Glass bottles can vary in size considerably.

Four Sided Bottle

This four sided bottle is a rigid container. A glass bottle is a bottle created from glass. Glass bottles…

A glass or plastic vessel used for storing drinks or other liquids; typically cylindrical without handles and with a narrow neck that can be plugged or capped

Ornamental Bottle

A glass or plastic vessel used for storing drinks or other liquids; typically cylindrical without handles…

A hemispherical vessel, wider than it is deep, used for holding food or fluids.

Two Piece Bowl

A hemispherical vessel, wider than it is deep, used for holding food or fluids.

A sailing vessel with two masts rigged like the foremast and mizzen-mast of a full-rigged ship.

Brig

A sailing vessel with two masts rigged like the foremast and mizzen-mast of a full-rigged ship.

"Brigantine: a square-rigged vessel with two masts and fore and aft mainsail." — Williams, 1889

Brig

"Brigantine: a square-rigged vessel with two masts and fore and aft mainsail." — Williams, 1889

A steel bucket filled with sand which is used to put out fires. Typically, fire buckets are painted bright red and have the word 'Fire' stencilled on them in white lettering. They are placed in prominent positions in rooms or corridors.

Fire Bucket

A steel bucket filled with sand which is used to put out fires. Typically, fire buckets are painted…

"Mooring anchors are those which are places in harbours, for the convenience of vessels frequenting them. A large buoy is attached to the end of the mooring cable, and the ship is made fast to a ring-bolt fitted on the buoy. Mooring anchors are not limited by considerations of weight, as other anchors are, he only requirements being that they have sufficient holding power, and do not project above the ground, as any projection in the shallow waters in which they are usually placed would render ships liable to injury from grounding on them, and be dangerous to fishing-nets." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Buoy Mooring Block

"Mooring anchors are those which are places in harbours, for the convenience of vessels frequenting…

A captain on his ship. "At high noon every day he makes an observation, telling by the sun just where we are." -Carpenter, 1912

Captain of a Ship

A captain on his ship. "At high noon every day he makes an observation, telling by the sun just where…

"The carchesium was a beaker, or drinking-cup, which was used by the Greeks in very early times. It was slightly contracted in the middle, and its two handles extended from the top to the bottom. It was much employed in libations of wine, milk, blood, and honey." — Anthon, 1891

Carchesium

"The carchesium was a beaker, or drinking-cup, which was used by the Greeks in very early times. It…

"Mooring anchors are those which are places in harbours, for the convenience of vessels frequenting them. A large buoy is attached to the end of the mooring cable, and the ship is made fast to a ring-bolt fitted on the buoy. Mooring anchors are not limited by considerations of weight, as other anchors are, he only requirements being that they have sufficient holding power, and do not project above the ground, as any projection in the shallow waters in which they are usually placed would render ships liable to injury from grounding on them, and be dangerous to fishing-nets." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Cast-iron Mooring Anchor

"Mooring anchors are those which are places in harbours, for the convenience of vessels frequenting…

"When a vessel containing water is whirled rapidly round, why does not the water fall out when the vessel is upside down? Because the centrifugal force, tending to make the water fly from the center, overcomes or balances the attraction of gravitation, which tends to cause the water to fall out." — Wells, 1857

Centrifugal Force

"When a vessel containing water is whirled rapidly round, why does not the water fall out when the vessel…

A Chinese trading ship.

Chinese Trading Ship

A Chinese trading ship.

A receptacle for the chrism, or holy oil, used in the services or the Roman Catholic and Eastern Churches.

Chrismatory

A receptacle for the chrism, or holy oil, used in the services or the Roman Catholic and Eastern Churches.

A vessel in which cream is agitated to separate butterfat from buttermilk

Agricultural Churn

A vessel in which cream is agitated to separate butterfat from buttermilk

"The condensing pump is an instrument for compressing a gas into a closed vessel, as in pumping air into a pneumatic tire of a bicycle, or oxygen or hydrogen into the cylinders commonly used for stereopticon purposes, or charging water with carbon dioxide for sale as 'soda water'." -Avery 1895

Condensing Pump

"The condensing pump is an instrument for compressing a gas into a closed vessel, as in pumping air…

A pipecutter is a type of tool used by plumbers to cut pipe. Besides producing a clean cut, the tool is often a faster and more convenient way of cutting pipe than using a hacksaw, although this depends on the metal the pipe is made out of.

Pipe Cutter

A pipecutter is a type of tool used by plumbers to cut pipe. Besides producing a clean cut, the tool…

"The Danglish apparatus consists of the following parts: 1st, a generator A, in which carbonic acid is evolved from chalk by sulphuric or hydrochloric acid; 2nd, a gas-holder, in which the carbonic acid is stored for use after being purified in passing through water; 3rd, an air pump, for pumping carbonic acid from the gas-holder, and forcing it into the water vessel and mixer; 4th, another air-pump, for withdrawing atmospheric air from the mixer before the aerated water is admitted; 5th, a water vessel B, a strong cylinder of copper capable of withstanding a pressure of 100 lbs on the square inch, and of sufficient size to contain water for a full charge of the mixer; attached to this water vessel there are a gauge-glass C, and a pressure gauge D, for indicating the pressure of gas as it is pumped in; 6th, the mixer E, a globular vessel of cast-iron, capable of bearing high pressure, through the center of which an axle runs, fitted with iron kneating arms extending to the circumference of the vessel." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Danglish Apparatus

"The Danglish apparatus consists of the following parts: 1st, a generator A, in which carbonic acid…

The process of shaking up whole milk (or cream) to make butter, and various forms of butter churn have been used for the purpose.

Churn Device

The process of shaking up whole milk (or cream) to make butter, and various forms of butter churn have…

This is an ornamental container for drinking. A chalice is a goblet or footed cup intended to hold a drink. In general religious terms, it is intended for quaffing during a ceremony.

Unique Pattern Glass Dish

This is an ornamental container for drinking. A chalice is a goblet or footed cup intended to hold a…

A Greek object, with cherubs depicted.

Greek doodad

A Greek object, with cherubs depicted.

"Longitudinal section of hopper dredger, employed on the River Clyde. The vessel steams to place of working and is moored by the Steam Winches A A at bow and stern to buoys, the Bucket Ladder B is then lowered by steam power, and thereafter Buckets set in motion by gearing C C. The depth of water at which the Bucket Ladder dredges is regulated by the Hoisting Shears and Chain Barrel D D, driven by shafting E E from the Engines. The Buckets discharge the material by the shoot F into the Hopper G. The dredged material is discharged by the doors of the Hopper being opened by the Lifting Chains H H. These doors are hinged on to the side of Vessel, and suspended at centre by the Lifting Chains, which are connected to geared Crab Winches I I." -Hill, 1921

Hopper Dredger

"Longitudinal section of hopper dredger, employed on the River Clyde. The vessel steams to place of…

Successive Stages of Earthenware Vessel on the Potter's Wheel.

Successive Stages of Earthenware Vessel

Successive Stages of Earthenware Vessel on the Potter's Wheel.

The inner workings of the Carmania. A description of how the ship gets power in order to move on the ocean.

Turbine Engine

The inner workings of the Carmania. A description of how the ship gets power in order to move on the…

"Transverse section of a closed fibro-vascular bundle. r, annular vessel; s, spiral vessel; I, inter-cellular canal; g, pitted vessel; v, cambiform tissue which has become permanent. Between v and s are reticulated vessels. p, surrounding parenchyms. Outer cells a of the bundle are parenchymatous, i marks the inner side of the bundle." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Fibro-vascular Bundle

"Transverse section of a closed fibro-vascular bundle. r, annular vessel; s, spiral vessel; I, inter-cellular…

"Ship's Floor. Nautical, that part of the bottom of a vessel on each side of the keelson which is most nearly horizontal. AA, floor-plates; BBB, keelsons; FF, main frame; K, keel; LL, lightening-holes; RR, reverse frame." -Whitney, 1911

Floor of Ship

"Ship's Floor. Nautical, that part of the bottom of a vessel on each side of the keelson which is most…

"1. A horn used on board a vessel to sound a warning signal to other vessels in foggy weather. 2. A sounding instrument for warning vessels off shore during a fog. The most powerful of these instruments is the siren, or siren fog-horn." -Whitney, 1911

Brown's Siren Foghorn

"1. A horn used on board a vessel to sound a warning signal to other vessels in foggy weather. 2. A…

Fulton's Clermont. Speed: five miles per hour

Fulton's Clermont

Fulton's Clermont. Speed: five miles per hour

"Iron rods leading from the futtock-plates to an iron band round the topmast or lower mast." -Whitney, 1911

Futtock Shrouds

"Iron rods leading from the futtock-plates to an iron band round the topmast or lower mast." -Whitney,…

"Gaff. B, boom; CC, cheeks; G, gaff; M, mast; P, peak; T, throat or jaw. Nautical, a spar used to extend the upper edge of fore-and-aft sails which are not set on stays, as the mainsail of a sloop or spanker of a ship." -Whitney, 1911

Gaff Rig

"Gaff. B, boom; CC, cheeks; G, gaff; M, mast; P, peak; T, throat or jaw. Nautical, a spar used to extend…

"Nautical, a vessel's standing gaff which has an iron jackstay bolted to its under side." -Whitney, 1911

Railroad Gaff

"Nautical, a vessel's standing gaff which has an iron jackstay bolted to its under side." -Whitney,…

A vessel formerly used extensively in the Mediterranean.

Venetian Galleass

A vessel formerly used extensively in the Mediterranean.

"GALLEY. An ancient vessel propelled by oars; frequently used in shields of naval officers." -Hall, 1862

Galley

"GALLEY. An ancient vessel propelled by oars; frequently used in shields of naval officers." -Hall,…

"Nautical, on men-of-war, a pair of strong frames of oak made in the form of a gallows, fixed between the fore and main hatchways, with concave cross-beams called gallows-tops tenoned on to the uprights, to support spare topmasts, yards, booms, boats, etc." -Whitney, 1911

Gallows-Bitts

"Nautical, on men-of-war, a pair of strong frames of oak made in the form of a gallows, fixed between…

Grain Vessels leaving Chicago.

Grain Vessels

Grain Vessels leaving Chicago.

Henry Hudson's ship "Half Moon" on the Hudson River in New York.

Half Moon

Henry Hudson's ship "Half Moon" on the Hudson River in New York.

This bubble hat features dual liquid containers on the top of the hat just above the ears, with an elongated straw through which the user may drink the contents of the liquid vessel from.

Bubble Hat

This bubble hat features dual liquid containers on the top of the hat just above the ears, with an elongated…

"The heart and blood-vessels diagrammatically represented. L, lung; M, intestine; P, liver; dotted lines represent lymphatic vessels." —Martin, 1917

Heart

"The heart and blood-vessels diagrammatically represented. L, lung; M, intestine; P, liver; dotted lines…

"The heart and the great blood-vessel attached to it, seen from the side towards the sternum. The left cavities and the vessels connected with them are colored red; the right black. Atd, right auricle; Adx and As, the right and left auricular appendages; Vd, right ventricle; Vs, left ventricle; Aa, aorta; Ab, innominate artery; Cs, left common carotid artery; Ssi, left subclavian artery; P, main trunk of the pulmonary artery, and Pd and Ps, its branches to the right and left lungs; cs, superior vena cava; Ade and Asi, the right and left innominate veins; pd, ps, the right and left pulmonary veins; crd and crs, the right and left coronary arteries." —Martin, 1917

Heart

"The heart and the great blood-vessel attached to it, seen from the side towards the sternum. The left…

"The heart vied from its dorsal aspect. ci, inverior vena cava; Vc, coronary vein; Atd, right auricle; Adx and As, the right and left auricular appendages; Vd, right ventricle; Vs, left ventricle; Aa, aorta; Ab, innominate artery; Cs, left common carotid artery; Ssi, left subclavian artery; P, main trunk of the pulmonary artery, and Pd and Ps, its branches to the right and left lungs; cs, superior vena cava; Ade and Asi, the right and left innominate veins; pd, ps, the right and left pulmonary veins; crd and crs, the right and left coronary arteries." —Martin, 1917

Heart

"The heart vied from its dorsal aspect. ci, inverior vena cava; Vc, coronary vein; Atd, right auricle;…

This is a holding device for a receptacle having a narrow neck, usually no handles, and a mouth that can be plugged, corked, or capped.

Bottle Holder

This is a holding device for a receptacle having a narrow neck, usually no handles, and a mouth that…

The sheer hulk is a ship that is afloat but incapable of going to sea. It was used as a crane to help construct ships with its sheers (masts).

Sheer Hulk

The sheer hulk is a ship that is afloat but incapable of going to sea. It was used as a crane to help…

"Monkey reefed, said of a sail when the yard is on the cap and the reef-tackles are hauled out." -Whitney, 1911

Monkey Reef Jib

"Monkey reefed, said of a sail when the yard is on the cap and the reef-tackles are hauled out."…

"Spanish reef, a derisive term for a jib having a knot tied in its head, or for one of the square-sails whose yard has been lowered and left on the cap." -Whitney, 1911

Spanish Reef Jib

"Spanish reef, a derisive term for a jib having a knot tied in its head, or for one of the square-sails…

A small kitchen appliance used for boiling water in preparation for making tea or other beverages requiring hot water. Depending on culture and historical location, the word kettle can also have a variety of other meanings.

Tea Kettle

A small kitchen appliance used for boiling water in preparation for making tea or other beverages requiring…

A small kitchen appliance used for boiling water in preparation for making tea or other beverages requiring hot water. Depending on culture and historical location, the word kettle can also have a variety of other meanings.

Tea Kettle

A small kitchen appliance used for boiling water in preparation for making tea or other beverages requiring…

"Diagram of the blood vessels in the kidney." —Davison, 1910

Kidney

"Diagram of the blood vessels in the kidney." —Davison, 1910