The Bird Anatomy ClipArt gallery offers 405 illustrations of skeleton diagrams, arteries, digestive system, eggs, feathers, and both internal and external diagrams.

"A, Furcula or Merry-thought of a Domestic Fowl. ... h, hypoclidium." -Whitney, 1911

Furcula

"A, Furcula or Merry-thought of a Domestic Fowl. ... h, hypoclidium." -Whitney, 1911

"Further development of hen's egg; after Haeckel: A, the mulberry mass of cleavage cells, b, same as seen on top in fig 111, F, here viewed in profile in section, resting upon n, the simply-shaded part of the figure, to represent conventionally the mass of food-yelk. A, morula stage (as before); B, blastula stage, the mass of cells, b, forming the blastoderm, uplifted from the food-yelk, leaving the cleavage-cavity, s; w, the thickened rim of the germ-disc; C, the blastula in process of inversion, by which a layer of entoderm-cells, i, growing from periphery to centre, will apply itself to the layer of exoderm-cells, e, obliterating the cleavage-cavity, s; D, the disc-gastrula completed, by union of entoderm, i, with exoderm, e, leaving the primitive intestinal cavity, d, which is quite similar in appearance to the cleavage cavity, s, but morphologically quite different." Elliot Coues, 1884

Egg Germination

"Further development of hen's egg; after Haeckel: A, the mulberry mass of cleavage cells, b, same as…

"Glottis, or opening of trachea in the mouth; a, base of tongue; b, b, horns of hyoid bone; c, rima glottidis, cleft or chink of the glottis; d, a triangular vacuity; e, an elastic ligament; d, d and e represent an epiglottis; f, f, a papillose surface." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Glottis of a Rook

"Glottis, or opening of trachea in the mouth; a, base of tongue; b, b, horns of hyoid bone; c, rima…

The foot of a goat-sucker, with a distinctively longer middle toe, believed to be used for either grasping insects or combing its whiskers.

Foot of a Goat-Sucker

The foot of a goat-sucker, with a distinctively longer middle toe, believed to be used for either grasping…

Golden eagle claws.

Golden Eagle

Golden eagle claws.

"Fig 72 - Hyoid bones of a goose, nat. size; Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, U.S.A. a, cartilaginous end-piece of b, the great glosso-hyal, which has absorbed or replaced cerato-hyals or "lesser cornua"; c, basihyal, movably articulated with b, and combined completely with d, basibranchial, commonly called "urohyal;" e, ceratobranchial: f, epibranchial; e and f are together known as " thyrohayals," or "greater cornua." Elliot Coues, 1884

Goose Hyoid

"Fig 72 - Hyoid bones of a goose, nat. size; Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, U.S.A. a, cartilaginous end-piece of…

The wing muscles of a goose.

Goose Wing

The wing muscles of a goose.

"The beak or bill of birds is composed of two bony pieces, called mandibles, surrounded by a horny substance, differing both in form and thickness, according to the habits of the species."

Bill of Goose

"The beak or bill of birds is composed of two bony pieces, called mandibles, surrounded by a horny substance,…

The Great Crested Grebe (Lophæthyia cristata) is a fresh-water, migratory, diving bird of the family Podicipidæ. It has a duck-like body, brownish and white plumage, long neck, short wings, no tail, and large, flattened toes furnished with lobate membranes serving the purpose of webs. Most of its life is spent in fresh water  lakes and ponds, but in winter and during migration, it often resorts to the sea. It is an excellent diver. The nest is made of rushes and other aquatic plants and usually floats on the water, being loosely anchored to weeds and grass. It is found in nearly all parts of Europe and Asia.

Great Crested Grebe

The Great Crested Grebe (Lophæthyia cristata) is a fresh-water, migratory, diving bird of the family…

The foot of a Great Jacamar, a bird belonging to the Scansores order. Scansores is an order of birds, popularly known as climbing birds. The most important of the families are the cuckoos, the woodpeckers and wry-necks, the parrots, the toucans, the trogons, the barbets, and the plantain-eaters.

Foot of a Great Jacamar

The foot of a Great Jacamar, a bird belonging to the Scansores order. Scansores is an order of birds,…

"F. Fibula; T, tibia, with a, its cnemial process, and P, large patella, of a grebe." Elliot Coues, 1884

Leg Bones of a Grebe

"F. Fibula; T, tibia, with a, its cnemial process, and P, large patella, of a grebe." Elliot Coues,…

"In this foot each toe is provided with its swimming membrane; the membrane being closed when the foot is flexed, and expanded when the foot is extended."—Pettigrew, 1874

Foot of Grebe

"In this foot each toe is provided with its swimming membrane; the membrane being closed when the foot…

"Guiraca. Blue Grosbeak. Bill Commissure strongly angulated far beyond base, with deep under mandible and bristly rictus as in Zamelodia, but not so swollen, the culmen nearly straight. Wings long and pointed, folding about the middle of the tail; tip formed be the 2d-4th quills, 1st little shorter, 5th rapidly graduated. Tail shorter than wings, even. Tarsus rather less than middle toe and claw; outer lateral toe slightly longer than the inner, but scarcely reaching base of middle claw. One species, large, male blue, female brown." Elliot Coues, 1884

Blue Grosbeak Bill

"Guiraca. Blue Grosbeak. Bill Commissure strongly angulated far beyond base, with deep under mandible…

"Zamelodia. Song Grosbeak. Bill extremely heavy, with the lower mandible as deep as the upper or deeper, the commissural angle strong, far in advance of the feathered base of the bill, the rictus overhung with a few long stiff bristles. Wing with outer 4 primaries abruptly longer than 5th. Tail shorter than wing, even or scarcely rounded. Feet short and stout. Embracing two larger species, of beautiful and striking colors, the sexes dissimilar. Male black and white, with carmine-red or orange-brown; Female otherwise, but with lining of wings yellow. Brilliant songsters; nest in trees and bushes; eggs spotted." Elliot Coues, 1884

Song Grosbeak Bill

"Zamelodia. Song Grosbeak. Bill extremely heavy, with the lower mandible as deep as the upper or deeper,…

A grouse's feet

Grouse Feet

A grouse's feet

"Bonasa umbella. Ruffed Grouse. "Partridge;" "Pheasant;" Above, variegate reddish- or grayish-brown, the back with numerous, oblong, pale, black-edged spots. Below, whitish, barred with brown. Tail brown or gray, numerously and narrowly black-barred, with a broad subterminal black zone, and tipped with gray. The neck-ruffle of the male mostly glossy black, and very full; of the female smaller and more brown. The colors are endlessly varied as well as blended, and the prevailing tone of the brown birds of the East shades insensibly into the Western varieties." Elliot Coues, 1884

Ruffed Grouse Head

"Bonasa umbella. Ruffed Grouse. "Partridge;" "Pheasant;" Above, variegate reddish- or grayish-brown,…

"Pelvis of a young grouse, showing three distinct bones. Il,P, ilium, ischium, pubis. In front of former a dorsal vertebra protrudes." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Pelvis of a Young Grouse

"Pelvis of a young grouse, showing three distinct bones. Il,P, ilium, ischium, pubis. In front of former…

"Fig. 29., from a young grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, six months old), is designed to show the composition of the carpus and metacarpus before the elements of these bones fuse together: r, radius; u, ulna; s, scapholunar or radiale; c, cuneiform or ulnare; om, a carpal bone believed to be os magnum, later fusing with the metacarpus; z, a carpal bone, supposed to be unciform, later fusing with metacarpus; 8, an unidentified fifth carpal bone, which may be called pentosteon, later fusing with the metacarpus; 7, radial or outer metacarpal bone, bearing the pollex or outer digit, consisting of two phalanges, d and k; 9', principal (median) metacarpal bone, bearing the middle finger, consisting of the two phalanges, d', d"; 9, inner or ulnar metacarpal, bearing a digit of one phalanx, d'". The pieces marked om, z, 7, 8, 9,. all fuse with 9'. (From nature by Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, U.S.A.)."Elliot Coues, 1884

The Wing Bones of a Young Grouse

"Fig. 29., from a young grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, six months old), is designed to show the…

"Bill averaging somewhat longer, about 1.90; culmen, commissure, and gonys nearly straight; upper mandible somewhat dilated toward the base along the cutting edges, and less feathered; gonydeal angle prominent. Bill consequently approaches that of the next species, in width and depth, but exaggerates the length and straightness of that of the last species." Elliot Coues, 1884

Californian Guillemot Bill

"Bill averaging somewhat longer, about 1.90; culmen, commissure, and gonys nearly straight; upper mandible…

"Bill black; bill along culmen 1.75; gape 2.50; gonys 1.15; depth at base .55; width .30." Elliot Coues, 1884

Common Guillemot Bill

"Bill black; bill along culmen 1.75; gape 2.50; gonys 1.15; depth at base .55; width .30." Elliot Coues,…

"Uria columba. Pigeon Guillemot. Bill stouter than that of grylle, and more obtuse." Elliot Coues, 1884

Pigeon Guillemot Bill

"Uria columba. Pigeon Guillemot. Bill stouter than that of grylle, and more obtuse." Elliot Coues, 1884

"Bill larger than Pigeon Guillemot, 1.5-1.70 along culmen, along gape 2.20, from feathers on side of lower mandible 1.50; depth at base .50; width .38."

Sooty Guillemot Bill

"Bill larger than Pigeon Guillemot, 1.5-1.70 along culmen, along gape 2.20, from feathers on side of…

"Lomvia arra. Thick-billed Guillemot. Arrie. Bill short, stout, wide, deep; culmen curved throughout; commissure decurved at end; gonys if anything concave in outline, the angle very protuberant; cutting edges of the upper mandible dilated and denuded toward the base, this bare turgid space flesh-colored in life, drying pale yellowish." Elliot Coues, 1884

Thick-billed Guillemot Bill

"Lomvia arra. Thick-billed Guillemot. Arrie. Bill short, stout, wide, deep; culmen curved throughout;…

"Uria grylle. Black Guillemots. Bill much shorter than head, about equal to tarsus, straight, rather stout, moderately compressed; culmen at first straight, then decurved; gape straight to near tip; gonys short straight, ascending, about 1/2 as long as culmen. No nick or groove near tip of upper mandible; its tomial edge scarcely inflected. Nasal fossae large and deep, partially filled with feathers which do not entirely cover the nostrils." Elliot Coues, 1884

Black Guillemot Bill

"Uria grylle. Black Guillemots. Bill much shorter than head, about equal to tarsus, straight, rather…

"Gular pouch of bustard; a, tongue; b, the pouch, opening under a, hanging in front of c, the trachea, behind which is the aesophagus, d, with its crop, e." Elliot Coues, 1884

Bustard Gular Pouch

"Gular pouch of bustard; a, tongue; b, the pouch, opening under a, hanging in front of c, the trachea,…

The bill of the gull (Laridae) is epignathous: "hook-billed; having the end of the upper mandible decurved over and beyond that of the lower one." -Whitney, 1911

Gull Bill

The bill of the gull (Laridae) is epignathous: "hook-billed; having the end of the upper mandible decurved…

"Chroicocephalus atricilla. Laughing Gull. Black-headed Gull. Bill longer than middle toe and claw, shorter than tarsus or head, moderately compressed, rather stout for this genus. Culmen and commissure both decurved and the end, the latter somewhat sinuate at the base. Gonys considerably concave in front of the angle, somewhat so between the angle and tip; although the angle id well defined, the tip of the bill is so decurved that a chord from tip to base does not touch it." Elliot Coues, 1884

Laughing Gull Bill

"Chroicocephalus atricilla. Laughing Gull. Black-headed Gull. Bill longer than middle toe and claw,…

"Fig. 46. - Raptorial foot of a hawk, Accipiter cooperi. The raptorial is another modification of the insessorial foot. It is advantageous to a bird of pray to be able to spread the toes as widely as possible, that the talons may seize pray like a set of grappling irons; and accordingly the toes are widely divergent from each other, the outer one in the owls and a few hawks being quite versatile. In a raptorial character, the toes are cleft profoundly, or, if united at base, it is by movable webbing; the claws are immensely developed and the under-surfaces of the toes are scabrous or bulbous for greater security of the object grasped." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Raptorial Foot of a Hawk

"Fig. 46. - Raptorial foot of a hawk, Accipiter cooperi. The raptorial is another modification of the…

An illustration of a sparrow-hawk's skeleton.

Skeleton of a Sparrowhawk

An illustration of a sparrow-hawk's skeleton.

The skull of a nestling sparrowhawk, palatal view.

Sparrowhawk Skull

The skull of a nestling sparrowhawk, palatal view.

The foot of an American sparrow-hawk.

Foot of American Sparrowhawk

The foot of an American sparrow-hawk.

In birds the muscles system is remarkable for their marked line of attachment to their tendons. Labels: 1, Occipito-Frontalis. 2, Orbicularis Palpaebrarum. 3, Temporal. 4, Masseter. 5, Sterno-cleido-Mastoid. 6, Trapezius. 7, Latissimus Dorsi. 8, Pectoralis. 9, Deltoid. 10, Biceps. 11, Triceps. 12, Gluteii. 13, Levator Caudae. 14, Rectus Femoris. 15, Gastrocnemius muscle.

The Superficial Muscles of a Hawk

In birds the muscles system is remarkable for their marked line of attachment to their tendons. Labels:…

Heart of a chick at the 45th, 65th, and 85th hours of incubation. I, the venous trunks; 2, the auricle; 3, the ventricle; 4, the bulbus arteriosus.

Development of the Heart of a Chick

Heart of a chick at the 45th, 65th, and 85th hours of incubation. I, the venous trunks; 2, the auricle;…

Feet of a hen

Hen Feet

Feet of a hen

"Cupidonia. Tarsi scant-feathered to the toes in front and on sides, bare on a strip behind; toes extensively webbed at base." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Foot of a Prairie Hen

"Cupidonia. Tarsi scant-feathered to the toes in front and on sides, bare on a strip behind; toes extensively…

" Fig 110 - Hens egg, nat. size, in section; from Owen, after A. Thompson. A, cicatricle or "tread," with its nucleus, of white germ-yelk, floating on surface of pale thin nutritive yelk, leading to central yelk-cavity, x; a, the yellow yelk-ball, deposited in the successive layers, forming a set of halones, and enveloped in the chalaziferous membrane which is spun out at opposite poles into the twisted strings, chalazae, c, c; b, b', successive investments of softer white albumen; d, membrana putaminis, the "soft shell" or egg-pod, between layers of which at the great end of the egg is the air space, f;e, the shell." Elliot Coues, 1884

Hen's Egg

" Fig 110 - Hens egg, nat. size, in section; from Owen, after A. Thompson. A, cicatricle or "tread,"…

The foot of a hen.

Hen's Foot

The foot of a hen.

The head and leg of the heron, a bird in the Ardeidae family of wading birds.

Heron Head and Leg

The head and leg of the heron, a bird in the Ardeidae family of wading birds.

"Pelvis of a heron (ardea herodias), nat. size, viewed from below; from nature by Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, U.S.A.   dl, dorso-lumbar vertebrae to and including the last one, sc; below sc, for the extent of the large black spaces (opposite the arrow) are the true sacral vertebrae; us, urosacral vertebrae (opposite the five oval black spaces; Il, ilium; Is, ischium; P, pubis; ob, obturator foramen. The arrow flies into the acetabulum.

The Pelvis of a Heron

"Pelvis of a heron (ardea herodias), nat. size, viewed from below; from nature by Dr. R.W. Shufeldt,…

The lower jaw of the Hesperornis regalis, an ancient bird of the Cretaceous Period.

Hesperornis Lower Jaw

The lower jaw of the Hesperornis regalis, an ancient bird of the Cretaceous Period.

The pelvis of the Hesperornis regalis, an ancient bird of the Cretaceous Period.

Hesperornis Pelvis

The pelvis of the Hesperornis regalis, an ancient bird of the Cretaceous Period.

The Hesperornis regalis was an ancient bird of the Cretaceous Period.

Hesperornis Regalis

The Hesperornis regalis was an ancient bird of the Cretaceous Period.

"Hesperornis regalis, (a fossilized restoration) which stood about three feet high, had blunt teeth in the grooves of both maxilla and mandible, the number being thirty or more below, but considerably less above, where they did not reach to the exterior extremity. The bill was long and pointed, the rami of the lower jaw being entirely separate; the head was rather small, the neck long, and the quadrate bone articulated with the skull by one knob only. The sternum was long, broad, and flat, without keel; the furcula was decidedly reduced, the metatarsus, being little more than a humerus; the tail was fairly long and broad, but had no pygostyle." A. H. Evans, 1900

Restoration of Hesperornis regalis

"Hesperornis regalis, (a fossilized restoration) which stood about three feet high, had blunt teeth…

"Hesperornis regalis, (a fossilized restoration) which stood about three feet high, had blunt teeth in the grooves of both maxilla and mandible, the number being thirty or more below, but considerably less above, where they did not reach to the exterior extremity. The bill was long and pointed, the rami of the lower jaw being entirely separate; the head was rather small, the neck long, and the quadrate bone articulated with the skull by one knob only. The sternum was long, broad, and flat, without keel; the furcula was decidedly reduced, the metatarsus, being little more than a humerus; the tail was fairly long and broad, but had no pygostyle." A. H. Evans, 1900

The Restoration of the Hesperornis Regalis

"Hesperornis regalis, (a fossilized restoration) which stood about three feet high, had blunt teeth…

A tooth of the Hesperornis regalis, an ancient bird of the Cretaceous Period.

Hesperornis Tooth

A tooth of the Hesperornis regalis, an ancient bird of the Cretaceous Period.

A vertebrae of the Hesperornis regalis, an ancient bird of the Cretaceous Period.

Hesperornis Vertebrae

A vertebrae of the Hesperornis regalis, an ancient bird of the Cretaceous Period.

A vertebrae of the Hesperornis regalis, an ancient bird of the Cretaceous Period.

Hesperornis Vertebrae

A vertebrae of the Hesperornis regalis, an ancient bird of the Cretaceous Period.

"Hyoid bone; a, glosso-hyal, tipped with cartilage, its posterior horn being certo-hyals proper; b, basi-hyal; c, basi-branchial proper, commonly called uro-hyall d, d, cerato-branchials proper, commonly called apo-hyals; e, e, epibranchials proper, commonly called cerato-hyals, tipped with cartilage, f, f.

The Hyoid-bone of a Rook

"Hyoid bone; a, glosso-hyal, tipped with cartilage, its posterior horn being certo-hyals proper; b,…

The ichthyornis an ancient bird of the Cretaceous Period.

Ichthyornis

The ichthyornis an ancient bird of the Cretaceous Period.

"Ichthyornis victor and I. dispar, ...were small forms of about the size of a Partridge, with the habits and appearance, it is presumed, of Terns or Gulls. The head was extremely large in proportion to the remainder of the skeleton; the beak was long and pointed, with entirely separate rami to the mandible; the sharp teeth, fixed regularly in distinct sockets, were inclined backwards, and occupied the whole of the lower and at least the posterior half of the upper jaw; the keel of the sternum was large and broad; the dorsal and cervico-dorsal vertebrae were biconcave. the quadrate articulated to the skull by one knob,... the metatarsus was short and the whole foot small; a furcula was probably present; the wings were well developed, indicating great powers of flight; while the tail was comparatively short, and ended in a pygostyle." A. H. Evans, 1900

Skeleton Head of a Ichthyornis

"Ichthyornis victor and I. dispar, ...were small forms of about the size of a Partridge, with the habits…

"Ichthyornis, though the wings are well developed, with fused metacarpals, and the sternum is keeled, the vertebrae present the extraordinary primitive character of being biconcave." Elliot Coues, 1884. This bird is believed to come from the Cretaceous of North America and is a seabird."

Restoration of Ichthyornis

"Ichthyornis, though the wings are well developed, with fused metacarpals, and the sternum is keeled,…

Rudiments of the liver on the intestines of a chick at the fifth day of incubation. Labels: 1, heart; 2, intestine; 3, diverticulum of the intestine in which the liver (4) is developed; 5, part of the mucous layer of the germinal membrane.

Intestine of a Chick

Rudiments of the liver on the intestines of a chick at the fifth day of incubation. Labels: 1, heart;…

"The feathers are horny productions, consisting of a hollow tube or barrel and a stem rising from it."

Wing of Kamichi, or Crested Screamer

"The feathers are horny productions, consisting of a hollow tube or barrel and a stem rising from it."

"Right wing of the Kestrel, drawn from the specimen, while being held against the light."—Pettigrew, 1874

Right Wing of Kestrel

"Right wing of the Kestrel, drawn from the specimen, while being held against the light."—Pettigrew,…

"Fig. 23 - A feather from the tail of a kingbird, Tyrannus carolinensis, almost entirely pennaceous; no after-shaft. A feather fit for writing with." Elliot Coues, 1884

A Feather from the Tail of a Kingbird

"Fig. 23 - A feather from the tail of a kingbird, Tyrannus carolinensis, almost entirely pennaceous;…

"Fig. 44- Syndactyle foot of a kingfisher. Thus a kingfisher shows what is called a syndactyle or syngnesious foot (fig. 44), where the outer and middle toes cohere for most of their extent and have a broad sole in common. It is a degradation of the insessorial foot, and not a common one either; seen in those perching birds which scarcely use their feet for progression, but simply for sitting motionless." Elliot Coues, 1884

The foot of a Kingfisher

"Fig. 44- Syndactyle foot of a kingfisher. Thus a kingfisher shows what is called a syndactyle or syngnesious…

"Pelvis of Apteryx austrlis. Lateral view. a, Acetabulum; il, ilium; is, ischium; p, pectineal process of pubis; p, pubis." (From Wiedersheim.)" A. H. Evans, 1900

Diagram of the Pelvis of a Kiwi

"Pelvis of Apteryx austrlis. Lateral view. a, Acetabulum; il, ilium; is, ischium; p, pectineal process…

"Bony labyrinth at the bottom of the trachea of the male Clangula islandica, seen from behind." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Bony Labyrinth of a Sea Duck

"Bony labyrinth at the bottom of the trachea of the male Clangula islandica, seen from behind." Elliot…

"Young bearded griffin (Gypaetus barbatus). Showing the feather-tracts or pterylae, for instance those on the breast (PT.). E., ear; P., web or propatagium; TH., thumb; PR., bases of primary feathers; S., bases of secondary feathers; B.S., bare streak without pterylae; CL., cloaca; R., bases of rectrices or tail feathers." -Thomson, 1916

Lammergeier

"Young bearded griffin (Gypaetus barbatus). Showing the feather-tracts or pterylae, for instance those…

"Alauda agrestis." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Lark

"Alauda agrestis." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910