The General Physics ClipArt gallery offers 222 images showing principles of the science and proof of theorems. Physics is the science of basic concepts such as energy and force.

"Two balls after an inelastic collision." —Quackenbos 1859

Inelastic Collision

"Two balls after an inelastic collision." —Quackenbos 1859

"Compound motion is that which is produced by two or more forces, acting in different directions, on the same body, at the same time." -Comstock 1850

Compound Motion

"Compound motion is that which is produced by two or more forces, acting in different directions, on…

This instrument consists of a bent tube closed at one end and containing within the space a quantity of air which is cut off from external communication by a column of mercury.

Compressed Air Manometer

This instrument consists of a bent tube closed at one end and containing within the space a quantity…

"Let P be a piston, fitted, air-tight, to the cylinder AB. As the piston is driven down, the air, unable to escape, is compressed; as it is drawn back, the air expands." —Quackenbos 1859

Compressibility of Air

"Let P be a piston, fitted, air-tight, to the cylinder AB. As the piston is driven down, the air, unable…

"If the strong tube, or barrel, be smooth, and equal on the inside, and there be fitted to it the solid piston, or plug a, so as to work up and down, air tight, by the handle b, the air in the barrel may be compressed into a space a hundred times less than its usual bulk. Indeed, if the vessel be of sufficient strength, and the force employed sufficiently great, its bulk may be lessened a thousand times, or in any proportion, according to the force employed; and if kept in this state for years, it will regain its former bulk the instant the pressure is removed." —Comstock, 1850

Compression Experiment

"If the strong tube, or barrel, be smooth, and equal on the inside, and there be fitted to it the solid…

An air compressor. They come in many forms, most commonly in cylinder form - as shown. This image shows the inner workings of an air compressor

Air Compressor

An air compressor. They come in many forms, most commonly in cylinder form - as shown. This image shows…

An example of converting mechanical energy to heat.

Energy Conversion

An example of converting mechanical energy to heat.

An illustration showing the interchangeability of heat and mechanical energy.

Heat Conversion

An illustration showing the interchangeability of heat and mechanical energy.

If the barometric tube is suspended from one of the scales of a balance, there will be required to balance it in the other scale a weight equal to the weight of the tube minus the upward pressure in the cistern.

Counterpoised Barometer

If the barometric tube is suspended from one of the scales of a balance, there will be required to balance…

"Place a known weight (say 100 g.) in the scale-pan, and to this weight add the weight of the clevis and the scale-pan, and call the sum the load. Measure the deflection of W caused by the load. Double the load, and measure the deflection thus caused." -Avery 1895

Deflection of Wood Using Known Weights

"Place a known weight (say 100 g.) in the scale-pan, and to this weight add the weight of the clevis…

"To avoid friction and heat, the piston is not in contact with the cylinder in which it works."

Deleuil's Air-pump

"To avoid friction and heat, the piston is not in contact with the cylinder in which it works."

When pipes are bent at ninety degree angles, a rounded bend is best as shown along with a radius as large as possible to increase discharge.

Pipe Diameter

When pipes are bent at ninety degree angles, a rounded bend is best as shown along with a radius as…

A Cartesian diver. At the top of the jar is a rubber bulb filled with air. The figure inside the jar is made of glass and weighs less than an equal volume of water, so it will float. This image serves to illustrate the elasticity of air and the transference of pressure in all directions of the water.

Cartesian Diver

A Cartesian diver. At the top of the jar is a rubber bulb filled with air. The figure inside the jar…

Two racks carry the pistons and work with the pinion. The pinion is turned by a double-handed lever, which is moved alternately in opposite directions.

Double-barrelled Air-pump

Two racks carry the pistons and work with the pinion. The pinion is turned by a double-handed lever,…

"The simplest way of measuring a force is to use a dynamometer, of which the spring-balance is a familiar example. The dynamometer may be graduated in pounds, grams, poundals, or dynes." — Avery, 1895

Dynamometer

"The simplest way of measuring a force is to use a dynamometer, of which the spring-balance is a familiar…

A tool used to measure the power output of things such as turbines and waterwheels.

Dynamometer

A tool used to measure the power output of things such as turbines and waterwheels.

Comparison of two engine efficiencies. Number 1 is in the reverse cycle.

Engine Efficiency

Comparison of two engine efficiencies. Number 1 is in the reverse cycle.

Velocity of Efflux. When an apparatus has holes tubes in them, the water that comes out will be the same height as the apparatus

Velocity of Efflux

Velocity of Efflux. When an apparatus has holes tubes in them, the water that comes out will be the…

An egg dropped in fresh and salt water to show the properties of density.

Egg Plunged in Fresh and Salt Water

An egg dropped in fresh and salt water to show the properties of density.

An instrument used to measure the force of the intermingling of two liquids of different densities, in close juxtaposition, but separated by a thin membranous tissue.

Endosmometer

An instrument used to measure the force of the intermingling of two liquids of different densities,…

"When two forces counteract, or balance each other out, they are said to be in equilibrium." -Comstock 1850

Equilibrium

"When two forces counteract, or balance each other out, they are said to be in equilibrium." -Comstock…

"A bar with weights attached that is in equilibrium." -Avery 1895

Bar and Weights in Equilibrium

"A bar with weights attached that is in equilibrium." -Avery 1895

"A bar with weights attached that is in equilibrium." -Avery 1895

Bar and Weights in Equilibrium

"A bar with weights attached that is in equilibrium." -Avery 1895

A piece in clocks and watches that converts rotational motion into oscillation, as in a pendulum.

Deadbeat Escapement

A piece in clocks and watches that converts rotational motion into oscillation, as in a pendulum.

A piece in clocks and watches that converts rotational motion into oscillation, as in a pendulum.

Recoiling Escapement

A piece in clocks and watches that converts rotational motion into oscillation, as in a pendulum.

An experiment using a balloon and air-pump to demonstrate the expansibility of gases.

Expansibility of Gases

An experiment using a balloon and air-pump to demonstrate the expansibility of gases.

Cubic expansion as illustrated by Gravesandes' ring. It contains brass ball a, and ring m through which it passes freely through at normal temperatures.

Cubic Expansion

Cubic expansion as illustrated by Gravesandes' ring. It contains brass ball a, and ring m through which…

Isothermal expansion is a change in a system with a constant temperature. This occurs when: 

A. Said system is in contact with an outside heat source 
and
B. The change in temperature is slow enough so that the reservoir can adjust through heat exchange.

Isothermal Expansion

Isothermal expansion is a change in a system with a constant temperature. This occurs when: A. Said…

Linear expansion is elongation (of an iron bar) in one direction. A is a metal rod, B is a screw, C is an eye, F is an indicator. As the rod heats, the elongation is shown by the indicator along D E.

Linear Expansion

Linear expansion is elongation (of an iron bar) in one direction. A is a metal rod, B is a screw, C…

The pressure on the bottom of a vessel containing liquid is not affected by the breadth or narrowness of the upper part of the vessel.

Experiment of Pascal's Values

The pressure on the bottom of a vessel containing liquid is not affected by the breadth or narrowness…

To prove that air has weight and exerts pressure on the earth, this experiment is conducted. A glass tube is filled with mercury. A finger is placed over the end to keep the mercury from slipping out, and the tube is inverted into a cup as shown. The mercury will fall, rise and after a few oscillations, will come to rest at a height above the top of the mercury in a glass equal to about 30 inches.

Pneumatics Experiment

To prove that air has weight and exerts pressure on the earth, this experiment is conducted. A glass…

"In a vacuum, all bodies fall at the same rate." -Comstock 1850

Falling Bodies in a Vacuum

"In a vacuum, all bodies fall at the same rate." -Comstock 1850

"When a feather and a cent are dropped from the same height, the cent reaches jthe ground first. this is not because the cent is heavier, bu because the feather meets with more resistance from the air in proportion to its mass. If this resistance can be removed or equalized, the two bodies will fall equal distances in equal times, or with the same velocity. The resistance may be avoided by dropping them in a glass tube from which the air has been removed. The resistances may be nearly equalized by making the two falling bodies of the same size and shape bu of different weights, as in the preceding experiment." -Avery 1895

Velocities of Falling Bodies

"When a feather and a cent are dropped from the same height, the cent reaches jthe ground first. this…

"Remove the air from a high glass tube by means of an instrument called the air-pump... Then... drop a feather and a cent simultaneously, and they will reach the bottom at precisely the same instant. Let in the air and drop them, and the feather will be several seconds longer than the cent in reaching the bottom." —Quackenbos 1859

Two Objects Falling in a Vacuum

"Remove the air from a high glass tube by means of an instrument called the air-pump... Then... drop…

In the first order of levers, the fulcrum is between the power and the weight.

First Orders of Lever

In the first order of levers, the fulcrum is between the power and the weight.

"If a body be fastened to a string and whirled, so as to give it a circular motion, there will be a pull on the string that will be greater or less according as the velocity increases or decreases... If the string were cut, the pulling force that drew it away from the straight line would be removed, and the body would then fly off at a tangent; that is, it would move in a straight line tangent to the circle, as shown in Fig. 9." —Hallock 1905

Centrifugal Force

"If a body be fastened to a string and whirled, so as to give it a circular motion, there will be a…

This apparatus consists of a bell-shaped vessel of glass, the base of which is pierced by a tube fitted with a stop-cock which enables us to exhaust the vessel of air.

Fountain in Vacuo

This apparatus consists of a bell-shaped vessel of glass, the base of which is pierced by a tube fitted…

Hero's fountain is named after its inventor, Hero, who lived in Alexandria 120 B.C. It is dependent on the elastic properties of air for its operation. It is made of brass dish A, glass globes B and C, and tubes D and E.

Hero's Fountain

Hero's fountain is named after its inventor, Hero, who lived in Alexandria 120 B.C. It is dependent…

An apparatus for verifying the parallelogram of forces. This method is used in physics for determining the force of vectors.

Gravesande's Apparatus

An apparatus for verifying the parallelogram of forces. This method is used in physics for determining…

"That the cannon ball is capable of attracting as well as being attracted, may be proved by suspending two balls close to each other by very long cords. In consequence of their attraction, the cords will not hang parallel, but will incline towards each other as they descend...." —Quackenbos 1859

Gravity Proved by Cannon Balls

"That the cannon ball is capable of attracting as well as being attracted, may be proved by suspending…

If w and W are two weights, then their center of gravity c is as shown. The moment of W about C should equal the moment of w about C. W X CW = w X Cw. The center of gravity is the average location of the weight of an object.

Center of Gravity

If w and W are two weights, then their center of gravity c is as shown. The moment of W about C should…

Finding the center of gravity of any number of bodies when their weights and distances apart of their centers of gravity are known. The center of gravity is the average location C of the weight of an object.

Center of Gravity

Finding the center of gravity of any number of bodies when their weights and distances apart of their…

Finding the center of gravity of an irregular plane figure. Divide one of the parallel surfaces into a triangle, parallelogram, circle, etc., based on the shape of the figure. Find the area of each part and combine the centers of gravity found for each.

Center of Gravity

Finding the center of gravity of an irregular plane figure. Divide one of the parallel surfaces into…

The center of gravity C of a solid object that is capable of movement is in vertical line drawn through the point of support.

Center of Gravity

The center of gravity C of a solid object that is capable of movement is in vertical line drawn through…

When a vertical line is drawn to the center of gravity of an object, it is called the line of direction. As long as the line of direction falls within the base of the object, it will stand.

Center of Gravity

When a vertical line is drawn to the center of gravity of an object, it is called the line of direction.…

(1.) The guillotine is an instrument employed for the purpose of decapitation. It was officially introduced into France as the means of inflicting capital punishment in April, 1792. It was named after its reputed inventor, Dr. Joseph Ingace-Guillotin, who, contrary to popular belief, died a natural death, and not a victim of his own invention. The instrument consists of two upright posts held together at the top by a cross beam, the former being perpendicularly so grooved as to allow of the falling in a direct line a broad steel blade, whose edge is cut obliquely. The latter, sometimes weighted with lead, descends upon the neck of the criminal immediately after the cord which holds it up is released by the executioner.
(2.) A guillotine is a machine, similar in name and in general construction to the above, employed by bookbinders. It is used for cutting paper and trimming the edges of books after the sheets have been sewn together.

Guillotine

(1.) The guillotine is an instrument employed for the purpose of decapitation. It was officially introduced…

"Gyroscope. Gyroscopic top, an instrument consisting of a heavy fly-wheel revolving about an axis one point of which is fixed, but which is otherwise free to move in any way." -Whitney, 1911

Gyroscope

"Gyroscope. Gyroscopic top, an instrument consisting of a heavy fly-wheel revolving about an axis one…

"Foucault's Gyroscope. GYROSCOPE. An instrument consisting of a fly-wheel, the axis of which can turn freely in any direction, designed to illustrate the dynamics of rotating bodies." -Whitney, 1911

Foucault's Gyroscope

"Foucault's Gyroscope. GYROSCOPE. An instrument consisting of a fly-wheel, the axis of which can turn…

"Gyrostat. An instrument for illustrating the dynamics of rotation, composed of a box or case having a sharp bearing-edge in the form of a regular polygon, and containing a fly-wheel having its center and its direction of rotation in the plane of the bearing-edge." -Whitney, 1911

Gyrostat

"Gyrostat. An instrument for illustrating the dynamics of rotation, composed of a box or case having…

"Heat is radiated at C, which is placed at mirror A's focus. Mirror A catches some of the heat and reflects it across to mirror B which focuses the heat on D." —Quackenbos 1859

Reflection of Radiant Heat

"Heat is radiated at C, which is placed at mirror A's focus. Mirror A catches some of the heat and reflects…

Magdeburg Hemispheres. This model is used to show that atmospheric pressure is equal in all directions. It was invented by Otto Von Guericke, of Magdeburg - hence the name.

Magdeburg Hemispheres

Magdeburg Hemispheres. This model is used to show that atmospheric pressure is equal in all directions.…

Velocity of efflux. The area of the bottom of the vessel is a and the area of the top of the vessel is A. Velocity v is given by the v = sqrt((2gh)/(1-a^2/A^2))

Hydromechanics

Velocity of efflux. The area of the bottom of the vessel is a and the area of the top of the vessel…

When the diameter of a tube is narrower in one part when compared to the other parts (a and b), then the efflux coefficient will be larger than the coefficient if the diameter were the same throughout the tube.

Hydromechanics

When the diameter of a tube is narrower in one part when compared to the other parts (a and b), then…

A hydrometer of constant weight. This device measures the specific gravity of liquids. The specific gravity is the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of the water

Hydrometer

A hydrometer of constant weight. This device measures the specific gravity of liquids. The specific…

A hollow cylinder carrying a basket at its lower end, which is heavy enough to keep the apparatus upright when placed in water. At the top of the apparatus is a pan for holding weights.

Nicholson's Hydrometer

A hollow cylinder carrying a basket at its lower end, which is heavy enough to keep the apparatus upright…

"The principle of increased velocity as bodies descend from a height, is curiously illustrated by pouring molasses or thick syrup from an elevation to the ground. The bulky stream, of perhaps two inches in diameter where it leaves the vessel, as it descends, is reduced to the size of a straw, or knitting-needle; but what it wants in bulk is made up in velocity, for the small stream at the ground will fill a vessel just as soon as the large one at the outlet." —Comstock, 1850

Increased Velocity

"The principle of increased velocity as bodies descend from a height, is curiously illustrated by pouring…

"On the top of a short pillar is placed a card, and on the card a brass bal. Beside the pillar is fixed a steel spring, with an apparatus for drawing it back. If the spring is drawn back and the suddenly released, it will drive the card from the top of the pillar, while the ball in consequence of its inertia will retain its place." —Quackenbos 1859

Inertia Demonstration

"On the top of a short pillar is placed a card, and on the card a brass bal. Beside the pillar is fixed…

"... balance a card with a penny placed upon it on the tip of one of the fingers of the left hand, and strike it suddenly with the middle finger of the right hand, as represented [here]." —Quackenbos 1859

Inertia Demonstration

"... balance a card with a penny placed upon it on the tip of one of the fingers of the left hand, and…

"While his horse is going at full speed, he jumps over a rope extended across the ring, and regains his footing on the saddle without difficultly. To do this, he has only to leap straight up as he comes to the rope, for his inertia bears him along in the same direction as the horse." —Quackenbos 1859

Inertia Demonstration

"While his horse is going at full speed, he jumps over a rope extended across the ring, and regains…

"... a thin stick resting on two wine glasses may be broken by a quick blow with a poker in its centre (sic), without injury to its brittle supports." —Quackenbos 1859

Inertia Demonstration

"... a thin stick resting on two wine glasses may be broken by a quick blow with a poker in its centre…