"a Bessemer converter, which is an egg-shaped furnace built of wrought iron plates and lined with a thick layer of refractory material. The bottom is perforated with holes so that streams of air can be blown through the molten metal." -Brownlee 1907

Bessemer Converter

"a Bessemer converter, which is an egg-shaped furnace built of wrought iron plates and lined with a…

A blast furnace measuring 42 feet high and 15 feet across that contains 4356 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 42 feet high and 15 feet across that contains 4356 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 47.5 feet high and 16.5 feet across that contains 6174 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 47.5 feet high and 16.5 feet across that contains 6174 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 55 feet high and 16 feet across that contains 7175 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 55 feet high and 16 feet across that contains 7175 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 58 feet high and 17 feet across that contains 8000 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 58 feet high and 17 feet across that contains 8000 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 60 feet high and 20 feet across that contains 12778 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 60 feet high and 20 feet across that contains 12778 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 75 feet high and 16.5 feet across that contains 11983 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 75 feet high and 16.5 feet across that contains 11983 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 80 feet high and 20.5 feet across that contains 15500 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 80 feet high and 20.5 feet across that contains 15500 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 16 feet across that contains 15050 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 16 feet across that contains 15050 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 22 feet across that contains 25940 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 22 feet across that contains 25940 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 24 feet across that contains 28950 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 95.5 feet high and 24 feet across that contains 28950 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 85 feet high and 25 feet across that contains 26000 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 85 feet high and 25 feet across that contains 26000 cubic feet of space.

A blast furnace measuring 90 feet high and 30 feet across that contains 41149 cubic feet of space.

Blast Furnace

A blast furnace measuring 90 feet high and 30 feet across that contains 41149 cubic feet of space.

"Iron ores are smelted in a blast furnace which is operated in a manner similar to that employed in the production of copper matte. An iron blast furnace consists of a steel shell from 75 to 90 feet in height, lined with a thick layer of fire-brick." -Brownlee 1907

Blast Furnace for Cast Iron

"Iron ores are smelted in a blast furnace which is operated in a manner similar to that employed in…

"A verticle section of one form of blast-furnace is represented [here]. the crucible (C) is the part of the furnace in which the molten matte and slag collect. The body of the furnace consists of two concentric shells (cs), made either of wrought iron or of steel, between which cold water (W) is caused to circulate to precent the inner shell becoming heated...Pipes called tuyeres (T) enter the furnace a short distance above the hearth...Above the body of the furnace extend the hood (H) and the stack (S). A door (D), used in charging the furnace, is placed in the hood." -Brownlee 1907

Blast-furnace

"A verticle section of one form of blast-furnace is represented [here]. the crucible (C) is the part…

"These brick retorts are 9 feet long and with diameters of 22 and 13.5 inches, set four in an oven to one unarched furnace. Each retort will, it is affirmed, carbonize 500 tons cannel coal, or 2000 tons per oven of four, without any repairs whatever. Decayed bricks may be removed from these retorts and new ones inserted, and when thoroughly repaired they are again equal to new." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Brick Retort

"These brick retorts are 9 feet long and with diameters of 22 and 13.5 inches, set four in an oven to…

"Calder Pipe Stove. I. End Elevation. II. Elevation. III. Plan." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Calder Pipe Stove

"Calder Pipe Stove. I. End Elevation. II. Elevation. III. Plan." — The Encyclopedia Britannica,…

"Cascade Furnace—Longitudinal Section." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Cascade Furnace

"Cascade Furnace—Longitudinal Section." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Matte is converted into blister copper by means of a process called Bessemerizing, in a furnace called a converter." -Brownlee 1907

Converter Furnace

"Matte is converted into blister copper by means of a process called Bessemerizing, in a furnace called…

"Danks rotary Puddling Furnace. The feel is burnt in an ordinary fireplace, a blast B being admitted under the bars and another over them A, level with the firing hole, so that by regulating the two streams of air the atmosphere can be kept reducing or oxidizing at will. A circular chamber or drum C is supported on massive friction rollers and arranged so that its axis is about level with the top of the bridge; at the other end is a movable terminal shaped like the frustum of a cone D, supported by chains or rods from a crane so that it can be swung on one side if required, thus serving as a door." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Danks Furnace

"Danks rotary Puddling Furnace. The feel is burnt in an ordinary fireplace, a blast B being admitted…

"The electric furnace is a device by which a very high temperature is obtained by using a large arc between carbon terminals. The arc consists of carbon vapor, which conducts the current over the gap between the carbons and the resistance is so great that much heat is developed." -Brownlee 1907

Electric Furance

"The electric furnace is a device by which a very high temperature is obtained by using a large arc…

"A peculiar furnace, known as Ferrie's self-coking furnace after the name of its inventor, in which raw coal is employed, has been used at the Monkland Iron Works and elsewhere during the last few years. On the top of an ordinary furnace of about 53 feet in height and 7000 cubic feet capacity were erected four chambers or retorts about 20 feet in depth, each having a capacity of 500 cubic feet; external flues, in which a portion of the waste gases were burnt, served to heat these chambers in such a way as to coke the raw coal." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Ferrie's Furnace

"A peculiar furnace, known as Ferrie's self-coking furnace after the name of its inventor, in which…

"An automatic device employed with low-pressure steam-heating furnaces to maintain a uniform temperature." -Whitney, 1911

Fire Regulator

"An automatic device employed with low-pressure steam-heating furnaces to maintain a uniform temperature."…

"Ponsard Furnace or Forno-Convertisseur. This apparatus is essentially a combination of the Pernot furnace with the Bessemer converter, consisting of a hearth movable about an obliquely vertical axis. Instead of rotating round and round on this axis, the hearth D only moves through half a revolution." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Forno-Convertisseur

"Ponsard Furnace or Forno-Convertisseur. This apparatus is essentially a combination of the Pernot furnace…

"Any arrangement in which heat is produced by burning fuel. It usually is a structure of iron or brick, lined with fire-brick to withstand intense heat." — Beach, 1909

Furnace

"Any arrangement in which heat is produced by burning fuel. It usually is a structure of iron or brick,…

A furnace used to harden glass.

Furnace

A furnace used to harden glass.

A furnace used to harden glass.

Furnace

A furnace used to harden glass.

Inside Length of Furnace, 12 Feet.

Furnace

Inside Length of Furnace, 12 Feet.

"Automatic Oil Muffle Furnace." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Furnace

"Automatic Oil Muffle Furnace." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

"The section and ground plan of one of the older forms of open-mouthed furnaces used at Dowlais (Truran), consisting of a heavy mass of mascury, square at base, strongly braced together with iron tie-rods, rising in the shape of a truncated pyramid to the height of the boshes, and then surmounted with a conical top surrounded at the throat by a gallery for the introduction of the enarging materials. In the square base were four arched recesses or tuyere houses, one on each side, F, F, for the introduction of G also serving for the removal of cinder and the tapping of the furnace for the running of the pig. The lowest portion of the hearth or crucible, A, was constructed of refractory sandstone, grit, or conglomerate, or of difficulty fusible firebrick, the inner portion of the upper part of the furnace being also built of firebrick set in fireclay with an air course between the double lining thus constructed; exteriorly the furnace was built of less expensive and refractory materials, usually of stone, strongly bound round with iron hoops." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Furnace

"The section and ground plan of one of the older forms of open-mouthed furnaces used at Dowlais (Truran),…

"The more modern furnaces are constructed like this, but the masonry at the base is still less massive, so that, instead of there being four distinct tuyere houses, the separating walls of the houses are wholly cut away and replaced by a number of stout iron pillars on which rests the greater portion of the weight of the superstructure; through the walls of the hearth are pierced conical arched openings for the tuyeres; the throat is fitted with a valve for introducing materials from time to time, such as the cup and cone arrangement." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Furnace

"The more modern furnaces are constructed like this, but the masonry at the base is still less massive,…

"Sylvester's furnace doors or doors of similar form are preferable to the ordinary hinged doors, because they can be opened to any extent, and are less liable to get out of order." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Furnace Doors

"Sylvester's furnace doors or doors of similar form are preferable to the ordinary hinged doors, because…

"Gjers's Furnace Hoist. I. Section. II. Elevation. III. and IV. Plans." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Furnace Hoist

"Gjers's Furnace Hoist. I. Section. II. Elevation. III. and IV. Plans." — The Encyclopedia Britannica,…

An illustration of an alcoholic furnace which is fueled by an alcohol lamp.

Alcoholic Furnace

An illustration of an alcoholic furnace which is fueled by an alcohol lamp.

A furnace is a device used for heating, mostly for manufacturing. Heat energy usually comes from fuel combustion, or electricity.

Arch Plate for Furnace

A furnace is a device used for heating, mostly for manufacturing. Heat energy usually comes from fuel…

A furnace for smelting of iron from iron oxide ores; combustion is intensified by a blast of air

Blast Furnace

A furnace for smelting of iron from iron oxide ores; combustion is intensified by a blast of air

Crucible furnace used to melt metal. The stream of ignited gas enters the chamber to mix with air at the valve. The heat generated by this process will reach the metal's melting point to create a desired product.

Crucible Furnace for Melting Metal

Crucible furnace used to melt metal. The stream of ignited gas enters the chamber to mix with air at…

Any furnace in which the heat is provided by an electric current

Electric Furnace

Any furnace in which the heat is provided by an electric current

Any furnace in which the heat is provided by an electric current

Electric Furnace

Any furnace in which the heat is provided by an electric current

A furnace is a device used for heating. The furnace was most likely used for the manufacturing of ceramic objects. The heat energy used to fuel a furnace may be supplied directly by fuel combustion, by electricity such as the electric arc furnace, or through induction heating in induction furnaces.

Front for Hot Air Furnace

A furnace is a device used for heating. The furnace was most likely used for the manufacturing of ceramic…

An enclosed chamber in which heat is produced to heat buildings, destroy refuse, smelt or refine ores, etc.

Large Furnace

An enclosed chamber in which heat is produced to heat buildings, destroy refuse, smelt or refine ores,…

"A reverbatory type of gas furnace differs from the oil furnace in having the flames brought down through the roof." —Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Reverbatory Furance

"A reverbatory type of gas furnace differs from the oil furnace in having the flames brought down through…

A reverberatory furnace is a metallurgical or process furnace that isolates the material being processed from contact with the fuel, but not from contact with combustion gases. The term reverberation is used here in a generic sense of rebounding or reflecting, not in the acoustic sense of echoing.

Reverberatory Furnace

A reverberatory furnace is a metallurgical or process furnace that isolates the material being processed…

An illustration of a section of the reverberatory furnace. A reverberatory furnace is a metallurgical or process furnace that isolates the material being processed from contact with the fuel, but not from contact with combustion gases. The term reverberation is used here in a generic sense of rebounding or reflecting, not in the acoustic sense of echoing.

Sectional View of a Reverberatory Furnace

An illustration of a section of the reverberatory furnace. A reverberatory furnace is a metallurgical…

An enclosed chamber in which heat is produced to heat buildings, destroy refuse, smelt or refine ores, etc.

Smelting Furnace

An enclosed chamber in which heat is produced to heat buildings, destroy refuse, smelt or refine ores,…

"Elevation of Hislop's Gas Retort Furnace." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gas Retort

"Elevation of Hislop's Gas Retort Furnace." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Glass is made by melting together sand, an alkali, and calcium carbonate in pots of fire-clay." Brownlee 1907

Glass Furnace

"Glass is made by melting together sand, an alkali, and calcium carbonate in pots of fire-clay." Brownlee…

"Flint-Glass Manufactory." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glass Manufactory

"Flint-Glass Manufactory." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Interior of a crown-glass house." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glass Manufactory

"Interior of a crown-glass house." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Water heating is a thermodynamic process using an energy source to heat water above its initial temperature. Typical domestic uses of hot water are for cooking, cleaning, bathing, and space heating. In industry, both hot water and water heated to steam have many uses.

Rotary Water Heater

Water heating is a thermodynamic process using an energy source to heat water above its initial temperature.…

A type of furnace for smelting metal ore.

Hot Blast-furnace

A type of furnace for smelting metal ore.

"The oldest form of blast heating apparatus, applied by Neilson, consisted of a tubular rivetted boiler plate heating vessel, mounted in a brick chamber OOOO, and heated by a fire underneath fed through the door D, the waste gases from the fire passing out at the far end of the chimney. Crescent-shaped partitions p, p, p inside the heater caused the current of air from the blowing engine which entered at B to take a serpentine course as indicated by the arrows, finally passing off at S to the furnace." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Hotblast Stove

"The oldest form of blast heating apparatus, applied by Neilson, consisted of a tubular rivetted boiler…

An illustration depicting iron furnaces located in Rockwood, Tennessee.

Iron Furnaces

An illustration depicting iron furnaces located in Rockwood, Tennessee.

"Langens arrangement is a somewhat similar combination, the cone being made into a bell with perforated top, the edges of the perforation being turned over inwards bb; the bell rests upon the cup aa, the turned over edge cc fitting into a water lute surrounding the central tube kkk, so that whilst the bell is lowered the furnace top is gastight or nearly so. By means of a pair of levers d, d and a counterpoise swung on a horizontal axle at r by means of a winch e, the bell can be raised so that the charge in the cup falls into the furnace, sliding down the inclined surface. Two safety valves x and fg are provided, the latter being ordinarily supported by the pressure of the gases, but falling by its own weight when the gas pressure is relieved by raising the bell, so as to close the top of the gas shaft, the turned-down edges of g fitting into the annular groove oo; h is a small manhole for the introduction of scrapers to clear out flue dust when required." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Langen's Collector

"Langens arrangement is a somewhat similar combination, the cone being made into a bell with perforated…

"Langens arrangement is a somewhat similar combination, the cone being made into a bell with perforated top, the edges of the perforation being turned over inwards bb; the bell rests upon the cup aa, the turned over edge cc fitting into a water lute surrounding the central tube kkk, so that whilst the bell is lowered the furnace top is gastight or nearly so. By means of a pair of levers d, d and a counterpoise swung on a horizontal axle at r by means of a winch e, the bell can be raised so that the charge in the cup falls into the furnace, sliding down the inclined surface. Two safety valves x and fg are provided, the latter being ordinarily supported by the pressure of the gases, but falling by its own weight when the gas pressure is relieved by raising the bell, so as to close the top of the gas shaft, the turned-down edges of g fitting into the annular groove oo; h is a small manhole for the introduction of scrapers to clear out flue dust when required." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Langen's Collector

"Langens arrangement is a somewhat similar combination, the cone being made into a bell with perforated…

Five pounds of tea leaves are taken out of the steam bath and put in a stone furnace.

Leaves in Furnace

Five pounds of tea leaves are taken out of the steam bath and put in a stone furnace.

"Five kinds of glass are made: flint glass, or crystal; crown glass, broad sheet glass, bottle, or green glass, and plate glass." —The Popular Cyclopedia, 1888

Glass manufacturing

"Five kinds of glass are made: flint glass, or crystal; crown glass, broad sheet glass, bottle, or green…

"A representation of one of the class of mechanical rabbles known as Witham's machine rabble applied to a double puddling furnace." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Mechanical Rabble

"A representation of one of the class of mechanical rabbles known as Witham's machine rabble applied…

"An open hearth furnace has a large bed (E) lined with fire-brick and sand (H) on which the charge is placed. Gas is used as fuel and is heated before entering the furnace by pass-heated gas is passed into the furnace through a pipe (a), while through another flue (b) aur enters which has been similarly heated...hot, gaseous product escapes through checkerworks (C,D)..." -Brownlee 1907

Open Hearth Furnace

"An open hearth furnace has a large bed (E) lined with fire-brick and sand (H) on which the charge is…

"Pernot and Ponsard Furnaces and Allied Appliances. The pernot furnace as applied to the steel making differs in no material respect from the Pernot puddling furnace; it is substantially a Siemens-Martin furnace with a rotating bed. The hearth is a saucer-shaped cavity supported by an iron frame, mounted on the top of a slightly inclined nearly verticle axis, and running on wheels upon a rail or guide supported on a stout bogie." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pernot Furnace

"Pernot and Ponsard Furnaces and Allied Appliances. The pernot furnace as applied to the steel making…