"A pulley is a wheel having a grooved rim for carrying a rope or other line, and tuning on an axis carried in a frame, called a pulley block. The pulley is fixed if the block is stationary." — Avery, 1895

Fixed Pulley

"A pulley is a wheel having a grooved rim for carrying a rope or other line, and tuning on an axis carried…

"Self-stripping Flat Carding Machine" — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Flat Carding Machine

"Self-stripping Flat Carding Machine" — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Machine for producing folded strata.

Machine for Producing Folded Strata

Machine for producing folded strata.

"The operation of the force-pump is similar to that of the suction-pump. The outlet-valve generally opens from the cylinder, the piston being made solid." — Avery, 1895

Force pump

"The operation of the force-pump is similar to that of the suction-pump. The outlet-valve generally…

"Formerly, all nails were hand made, by forging on an anvil; and vast quantities are still made in this manner, being preferable, for many kinds of carpenter's work, to those made by machinery." —The Popular Cyclopedia, 1888

Nail forge

"Formerly, all nails were hand made, by forging on an anvil; and vast quantities are still made in this…

"Partial sketch of a four pole machine laid on its side." -Hawkins, 1917

Four Pole Machine

"Partial sketch of a four pole machine laid on its side." -Hawkins, 1917

"Machines of this kind may be constructed with as many pairs of plaes, combs, and brushes as can be conveniently combined together; four-plate machines being common, in which the relative positions of each pair of plates are reversed, as shown..." -Atkinson 1903

Four-Plate Machine

"Machines of this kind may be constructed with as many pairs of plaes, combs, and brushes as can be…

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

Frue Vanner (End View)

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

Frue Vanner (Side View)

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

Internal-combustion engine, side view.

Gas Engine, Internal-Combustion Engine

Internal-combustion engine, side view.

Internal-combustion engine (sectional view)

Gas Engine, Internal-Combustion Engine

Internal-combustion engine (sectional view)

"Lock of a Gatling Gun." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gatling Gun

"Lock of a Gatling Gun." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Mechanism that connects the coupler to the frame of the car. In model railroading, the coupler mounting box is often so-named.

Draft Gear

Mechanism that connects the coupler to the frame of the car. In model railroading, the coupler mounting…

"It is found preferable, therefore, when a great difference of velocity is required, to use a combination of wheels, of moderate size. In the following figure, three wheels are seen thusly connected." — Goodrich, 1844

Gears

"It is found preferable, therefore, when a great difference of velocity is required, to use a combination…

A De Laval steam turbine connected to a generator. The turbine generates electricity by turning the shaft. The turbine is operates by providing steam into the vanes.

De Laval Steam Turbine Connected to Generator

A De Laval steam turbine connected to a generator. The turbine generates electricity by turning the…

A cross sectional view of the Pearsons turbine for generating electricity. The turbines, located in P are turned by steam, generating electricity.

Pearsons Turbine for Electricity Generator

A cross sectional view of the Pearsons turbine for generating electricity. The turbines, located in…

Used to convert water into steam from heat produced in a nuclear reactor core. They are used in pressurized water reactors between the primary and secondary coolant loops.

Steam Generator

Used to convert water into steam from heat produced in a nuclear reactor core. They are used in pressurized…

Invented by Eli Whitney, the cotton gin is a machine that quickly separates the cotton from the seeds.

Cotton Gin

Invented by Eli Whitney, the cotton gin is a machine that quickly separates the cotton from the seeds.

A machine that separates the seeds, seed hulls, and other small objects from the fibers of cotton.

Cotton Gin

A machine that separates the seeds, seed hulls, and other small objects from the fibers of cotton.

This illustration shows two glue cakes after the glue manufacturing process. The top image is a french cake, 7.5x7.5 inches square. The bottom image is an ordinary cake, a rectangle, 9 in by 5.5 in.

Glue Cake (Manufacturing)

This illustration shows two glue cakes after the glue manufacturing process. The top image is a french…

This illustration shows a Gnome motor with revolving cylinders and its many parts: Spark Plug; Conducting Wire from Collector Ring; Distributor Brush from Magneto; Electric Collector Ring; Fixed, Hollow Crankshaft; Connecting Rod; Piston; Revolving Crankcase; Tappet Cams (male and female); Exhaust Valve Tappet; Exhaust Valve; Intake Valve; Air-Cooled Cylinder. Gnome was the leading type of air cooled motor in the 1920s.

Gnome Motor, with Revolving Cylinders

This illustration shows a Gnome motor with revolving cylinders and its many parts: Spark Plug; Conducting…

Governor, used for regulating output of steam engines.

Governor

Governor, used for regulating output of steam engines.

"Of all the contrivances for regulating the motion of machinery, this is said to be the most effectual. It will be readily understood by the following description. It consists of two heavy iron balls b, attached to the extremities of the two rods, b, e. These rods play on a joint at e, passing through a mortice in the vertical stem d, d. At f, these pieces are united, by joints to two short rods, f, h, which, at their upper ends, are again connected by joints at h, to a ring which slides upon the vertical stem d d." —Comstock, 1850

Governor

"Of all the contrivances for regulating the motion of machinery, this is said to be the most effectual.…

"Governor of a Steam-engine. GOVERNOR. In machinery, a self-acting regulator which controls a supply of steam, gas, or water; especially, any device for automatically regulating the amount of power developed in a machine, as in a steam-engine." -Whitney, 1911

Electric Governor

"Governor of a Steam-engine. GOVERNOR. In machinery, a self-acting regulator which controls a supply…

"Granulating machine. A, hopper, with raising arrangement; B, endless band; C, C, C, C, four pairs of rollers; D, D, D, short screens; E, E, long screens; F, box for dust; G, box for grain; H, box for chucks; K, bottom board." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Granulating Machine

"Granulating machine. A, hopper, with raising arrangement; B, endless band; C, C, C, C, four pairs of…

Gutenberg's press. Screw presses down platen on the type.

Gutenberg Press

Gutenberg's press. Screw presses down platen on the type.

A gyroscope that is rotated to form an ellipse.

Gyroscope

A gyroscope that is rotated to form an ellipse.

"Finally, the leather is rolled and compressed on a level zinc-lined wooden bed by a heavy hand roller, or on the platform of one of the numerous forms of machines designed for that purpose." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Hand Roller

"Finally, the leather is rolled and compressed on a level zinc-lined wooden bed by a heavy hand roller,…

Farm machine that gathers a food crop from the fields

Tea Harvester

Farm machine that gathers a food crop from the fields

This machine was used to mold different hat bodies, where the molding body spins about the axis and can be changed to varying shapes.

Molding Tool, Hat

This machine was used to mold different hat bodies, where the molding body spins about the axis and…

"Hero's Machine. The generation of steam from water by the application of heat, and the mechanical force produced by this means, appear to have been understood at a very remote period; but their application to machinery devoted to the purposes of locomotion, is a discovery of recent date. The ingenious contrivances of early discoverers were devoted to objects of minor importance, as those of raising water and propelling smoke upwards." —Comstock, 1850

Hero's Machine

"Hero's Machine. The generation of steam from water by the application of heat, and the mechanical force…

A trip hammer resembles a hand-hammer held in a horizontal position. The hammer is placed at the end of a heavy beam pivoted near the opposite end. By means of simple machinery the handle was raised and then "tripped" or let fall, when the hammer-head delivered its blow upon the anvil. They were at first operated by water power, but later by steam power.

Horizontal Steam Power Hammer

A trip hammer resembles a hand-hammer held in a horizontal position. The hammer is placed at the end…

A device on an automobile for making a warning noise.

Automobile Horn

A device on an automobile for making a warning noise.

"In the year 1589 the stocking-frame, the machine which mechanically produces the looped stitch in hosiery, was invented by the Rev. William Lee, a graduate of Cambridge, and native of Woodborough, near Nottingham. The fundamental principle of the apparatus consists in the substitution of a seperate hooked or barbed needle for the support and working of each loop, in place of the system whereby an indefinate number of loops are skewered on one or more wires or needles. At R is seen a thread of yarn passed over the needle stalks and within the terminal hooks. The yarn, it will be observed, is waved or depressed between each pair of needles, whereby sufficient yarn is secured to form the seperate loops of uniform size, and thus produce a regular equal fabric." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Hosiery

"In the year 1589 the stocking-frame, the machine which mechanically produces the looped stitch in hosiery,…

An illustration of a section of the interior of a large house clock.

House Clock

An illustration of a section of the interior of a large house clock.

A machine capable of pressure of 2,000 tons. It is able to cold form metal, and is used to make material for the concrete industry.

Hydraulic Press

A machine capable of pressure of 2,000 tons. It is able to cold form metal, and is used to make material…

Machine for raising water, and depending for its action on the impulse of flowing water.

Hydraulic Ram

Machine for raising water, and depending for its action on the impulse of flowing water.

"The Hydraulic Ram is a machine for raising water, and depending for its action on the impulse of flowing water. The water falling from a reservoir passes into a pipe or chamber <em>(b)</em>, at the end of which there is a ball valve <em>(c)</em>. The rush of supply water at first closes this, and the water finding no exit there acquires pressure enough to open another valve <em>(d)</em> and pass into an air-vessel placed over it <em>(f)</em>. The cessation of pressure at valve <em>c</em> allows it to fall again; an outrush of water takes place there, relieving valve <em>d</em>, which again closes. The pressure of the flowing water upon valve <em>c</em> once more closes this valve, and valve <em>d</em> again opens, and an additional quantity of water is forced into the air-vessel; and so on by a series of pulsations which send the water along the service pipe, and, in properly arranged machines, raise it to a very considerable height, although the impulse is dervied only from the fall of a few feet."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Hydraulic Ram

"The Hydraulic Ram is a machine for raising water, and depending for its action on the impulse of flowing…

"Hydraulic Scroll. a, case, inclosing center-discharge turbine water-wheel; b, openings for inflow of water; c, c', gates for admitting water to central wheel-space d (the wheel is not shown); e, e', gate-shafts; f, shaft by which the two gates are operated simultaneously and equally from worm-gearing at the top of the gate-shafts." -Whitney, 1911

Hydraulic Scroll

"Hydraulic Scroll. a, case, inclosing center-discharge turbine water-wheel; b, openings for inflow of…

A design improvement when creating hydrocarbon gas.

Machine for Hydrocarbon Gas

A design improvement when creating hydrocarbon gas.

"A force pushing a weight from C to D, only raises it through the perpendicular height, E D, by acting along the whole length of the plane, C D; and if the plane be twice as it is high, one pound at B, acting over the pulley, D, would balance two pounds at A, or any where on the plane; and so of all other quantities and proportions." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Inclined plane

"A force pushing a weight from C to D, only raises it through the perpendicular height, E D, by acting…

"Machine used to generate electricity by induction using transformed kinetic energy from the crank." -Avery 1895

Induction Machine

"Machine used to generate electricity by induction using transformed kinetic energy from the crank."…

New Ingersoll Drill

Ingersoll Drill

New Ingersoll Drill

An illustration of mine workers refining iron ore.

Iron Workers

An illustration of mine workers refining iron ore.

Originally the Jacquard machines were mechanical, and the fabric design was punched in pattern cards which were joined together to form a continuous chain. The Jacquards often were small and only independently controlled a relatively few warp ends. This required a number of repeats across the loom width. Larger capacity machines, or the use of multiple machines, allowed greater control, with fewer repeats, and hence larger designs to be woven across the loom width.

Jacquard Machine and Harness

Originally the Jacquard machines were mechanical, and the fabric design was punched in pattern cards…

An illustration of a jute opener.

Jute Opener

An illustration of a jute opener.

An illustration of a jute softening machine.

Jute Softening Machine

An illustration of a jute softening machine.

"A form of dough-making machine in common use. It consists of a trough or box, the lower portion of which is semi-cylindrical, hung on a spindle, with a series of iron crossbars revolving inside. It is made to be worked by either hand or steam-power, and of various sizes, as required by bakers. In this machine the whole of the operations connected with setting the sponge, breaking the sponge, and mixing the dough, are performed. The gearing is arranged to give a fast motion for setting the sponge, and a slow motion towards the close of the dough making, when it is desireable to draw out the mass in order to give it a "skin," or smooth superficial texture." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Kneading Machine

"A form of dough-making machine in common use. It consists of a trough or box, the lower portion of…

"A kneading-machine of a highly approved form, used in the great Scipion bakery of Paris, the invention of M. Boland. Externally it is like the former, and it is also geared to move at two rates of rapidity. It has further an adjustment by which the force of the motion is increased while its rate is diminished." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Kneading Machine

"A kneading-machine of a highly approved form, used in the great Scipion bakery of Paris, the invention…

"The trough is a castiron basin, which turns on a vertical axis. The interior is provided with a kneader, shaped like a lyre, which first works up the dough and then divides it during the entire period of operation. Two other implements are also used, of a helical form, to draw out and inflate the dough in all directions, part by part, as is practised in kneading by hand." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Kneading Machine

"The trough is a castiron basin, which turns on a vertical axis. The interior is provided with a kneader,…

"A section of part of a lace machine. E is the cylinder or beam upon which the lace is rolled as made, and upon which the ends of both warp and weft threads are fastened at starting. Beneath are w, w, w, a series of trays or beams, one above the other, containing the reels of the supplies of warp threads; c, c represent the slide bars for the passage of the bobbin b with its thread from k to k, the landing bars, one on each side of the rank of warp threads; s, t are the combs which take it in turns to press together the twistings as they are made. The combs are so regulated that they come away clear from the threads as soon as they have pressed them together and fall into positions ready to perform their pressing operations again." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Lace Machine

"A section of part of a lace machine. E is the cylinder or beam upon which the lace is rolled as made,…

"Single Scutcher and Lap Machine." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Lap Machine

"Single Scutcher and Lap Machine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

A lathe for turning wood to create a hole by fastening the material on to the faceplate.

Lathe, Wood Turning

A lathe for turning wood to create a hole by fastening the material on to the faceplate.

Rotary lawn mowers were not developed until there were small enough and powerful enough to run the blades at high speed.

Rotary Lawn Mower

Rotary lawn mowers were not developed until there were small enough and powerful enough to run the blades…

Leibnitz computing machine.

Leibnitz Computing Machine

Leibnitz computing machine.

"In mechanics, the word 'machine' signifies an instrument for the conversion of motion or the transference of energy." -Avery 1895

Man Using Lever and Fulcrum to Lift Rock

"In mechanics, the word 'machine' signifies an instrument for the conversion of motion or the transference…

"In straight levers of the first kind, the fulcrum is between the power and the resistance, as in fig 1, where F is the fulcrum of the lever AB; P is the power, and W the weight or resistance."&mdash;Pettigrew, 1874

First Kind of Lever

"In straight levers of the first kind, the fulcrum is between the power and the resistance, as in fig…

"9-pounder Limber (elevation)." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Limber

"9-pounder Limber (elevation)." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"9-pounder Limber (plan)." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Limber

"9-pounder Limber (plan)." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

The Linotype machine is a line casting machine that is commonly used in printing. This machine modernized printing in particular the newspaper publishing companies. Linotypes made possible for a relatively small number of operators to set type for many pages on a daily basis.

Early Model Linotype Machine

The Linotype machine is a line casting machine that is commonly used in printing. This machine modernized…