Hannibal and his army crossing the Alps.

Hannibal and his Army Crossing the Alps

Hannibal and his army crossing the Alps.

Arch of Titus (Rome)

Arch of Titus

Arch of Titus (Rome)

"Augustus ruled for about forty-two yeras, that is, from 27 B.C. to 14 A.D., and this period is known in history as the Golden Age of Latin Literature."—Colby, 1899

Augustus

"Augustus ruled for about forty-two yeras, that is, from 27 B.C. to 14 A.D., and this period is known…

An ancient missile weapon which launched a large projectile at a distant target.

Ballista

An ancient missile weapon which launched a large projectile at a distant target.

An eagle bearer from the Roman Empire. The eagle was made of precious metal and was the symbol of the power of Rome. If the eagle was lost in battle, it was considered a terrible disgrace.

Eagle Bearer

An eagle bearer from the Roman Empire. The eagle was made of precious metal and was the symbol of the…

An ancient town first recorded in the journals of Julius Caesar.

Besancon

An ancient town first recorded in the journals of Julius Caesar.

A bowman. Also the symbol for the zodiac sign Sagittarius.

Bowman (Sagittarius)

A bowman. Also the symbol for the zodiac sign Sagittarius.

Julius Caesar issued Roman coins bearing his own image.

Caesar Coin

Julius Caesar issued Roman coins bearing his own image.

An image depicting Julius Caesar, a Roman general and statesman. He was a key component to the shift of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. He emerged as the unrivaled leader of the Roman world in 49 BC.

Julius Caesar

An image depicting Julius Caesar, a Roman general and statesman. He was a key component to the shift…

A catapult as used during the Roman Empire. The catapult is an effective device used to hurl an object a great distance without the assistance of explosive devices.

A Catapult

A catapult as used during the Roman Empire. The catapult is an effective device used to hurl an object…

The King of the Franks from 768 and the Emperor of the Romans from 800 until his death in 814.

Charlemagne

The King of the Franks from 768 and the Emperor of the Romans from 800 until his death in 814.

"Roman coins showing various styles of hair-dressing."—Webster, 1913

Roman Coins

"Roman coins showing various styles of hair-dressing."—Webster, 1913

Emperor of Rome from 306 to 337. He is best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor.

Constantine the Great

Emperor of Rome from 306 to 337. He is best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor.

The consul was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic. They were elected every year. The lictors were a member of a special class of Roman civil servant. Their tasks were to attend and guard the magistrates of the Roman Republic.

Consul and Lictors

The consul was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic. They were elected every year. The lictors…

Emperor of the Roman Empire from 284 to 286 AD, and again from 286 to 305.

Diocletian

Emperor of the Roman Empire from 284 to 286 AD, and again from 286 to 305.

Restoration of the column of Gaius Duilius, a Roman politician and admiral in the First Punic War.

Column of Duilius

Restoration of the column of Gaius Duilius, a Roman politician and admiral in the First Punic War.

The obverse side of the dupondius, "a Roman bronze coin, of the value of 2 asses." -Whitney, 1911

Dupondius, Obverse

The obverse side of the dupondius, "a Roman bronze coin, of the value of 2 asses." -Whitney, 1911

The reverse side of the dupondius, "a Roman bronze coin, of the value of 2 asses." -Whitney, 1911

Dupondius, Revers

The reverse side of the dupondius, "a Roman bronze coin, of the value of 2 asses." -Whitney, 1911

"In Rom. antiq., bundles of rods, usually of birch, with an ax bound in with them, the blade projecting, borne by lictors before the superior Roman magistrates as a badge of their power over life and limb." -Whitney, 1911

Fasces of a Roman Magistrate

"In Rom. antiq., bundles of rods, usually of birch, with an ax bound in with them, the blade projecting,…

"1 and 3, necklaces with amber and coral pendants; 2, military standard; 4, bronze trumpet; 5, iron boss of shield; 6, iron fastening; 7, sword-hilt and belt; 8, iron helmet; 9, iron belt-chain."—D'ooge & Eastman, 1917

Gallic Remains

"1 and 3, necklaces with amber and coral pendants; 2, military standard; 4, bronze trumpet; 5, iron…

The Pont du Gard is an aqueduct and bridge that was built over the Gard River by the Roman Empire. It is located in Southern France, in the Vers-Pont-du-Gard and Remoulins area. The bridge is built on three levels. The lower level has 6 arches and carries a road, the middle level has 11 arches, and the upper level has 35 arches and was used as a water conduit.

Pont du Gard

The Pont du Gard is an aqueduct and bridge that was built over the Gard River by the Roman Empire. It…

Coin of Roman emperor Hadrian.

Hadrian, Coin of

Coin of Roman emperor Hadrian.

Also known as Castel Sant'Angelo. The temple of the Roman emperor Hadrian.

The Tomb of Hadrian

Also known as Castel Sant'Angelo. The temple of the Roman emperor Hadrian.

A harbor from the era of the Roman Empire.

An Ancient Harbor

A harbor from the era of the Roman Empire.

A depiction of Julian the Apostate, a noted philosopher and Roman Emperor, and his death.

Death of Julian the Apostate

A depiction of Julian the Apostate, a noted philosopher and Roman Emperor, and his death.

Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman military and political leader. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

Bust of Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman military and political leader. He played a critical role in the transformation…

"The litter consists of an ordinary couch with four posts and a pair of posts. Curtains fastened to the rod above the canopy shielded the occupant from observation."—Webster, 1913

A Roman Litter

"The litter consists of an ordinary couch with four posts and a pair of posts. Curtains fastened to…

An ancient chariot racing stadium used during the Roman Empire.

Circus Maximus

An ancient chariot racing stadium used during the Roman Empire.

Roman soldiers breaking into the German camp.

Milites Nostri in Castra Inruperunt

Roman soldiers breaking into the German camp.

Augustulus is deposed from the crown by Odoacer, and was thus the last Western Roman Emperor.

Odoacer Compels Augustulus to Yield the Crown

Augustulus is deposed from the crown by Odoacer, and was thus the last Western Roman Emperor.

"Excavating a house at Pompeii from eruption of Vesuvius, which buried the cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii."—Colby, 1899

Pompeii

"Excavating a house at Pompeii from eruption of Vesuvius, which buried the cities of Herculaneum and…

Also known as Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. He was a military and political leader of the Roman Republic.

Pompey

Also known as Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. He was a military and political leader of the Roman Republic.

"The Pont du Gard near Nimes (ancient Nemausus) in southern France. Built by the emperor Antoninus Pius. The bridge spans two hilltops nearly a thousand feet apart. It carries an aqueduct with three tiers of massive stone arches at a height of 160 feet above the stream. This is the finest and best preserved aqueduct in existence."—Webster, 1913

A Roman Aqueduct

"The Pont du Gard near Nimes (ancient Nemausus) in southern France. Built by the emperor Antoninus Pius.…

Armor used by the ancient Romans in battle.

Roman Armor

Armor used by the ancient Romans in battle.

A legion of the Roman army marching.

Roman Army on the March

A legion of the Roman army marching.

"The two chief avenues that were open to advancement were the political and the military. He must be well educated in a general way. Then he must be versed in the law, in statesmanship, and in oratory, or else in the art of war. If he were trained in both disciplines, so much the better."—D'ooge & Eastman, 1917

Roman Boy

"The two chief avenues that were open to advancement were the political and the military. He must be…

A cavlaryman of Cæsar's army during the Roman Republic.

Roman Cavalryman

A cavlaryman of Cæsar's army during the Roman Republic.

A Roman School

Roman School

A Roman School

A scene from a Roman wall painting.

Roman School Scene

A scene from a Roman wall painting.

Roman soldiers with spears and shields.

Roman Soldiers

Roman soldiers with spears and shields.

"1, funditor; 2, 2, milites levis armaturae; 3, 3, legionarii; 4, sarcina."—D'ooge & Eastman, 1917

Roman Soldiers and Equipment

"1, funditor; 2, 2, milites levis armaturae; 3, 3, legionarii; 4, sarcina."—D'ooge & Eastman,…

Staffs carried by Roman legions to show who they were and what rank in the army they held.

Roman Standards

Staffs carried by Roman legions to show who they were and what rank in the army they held.

"The best preserved of Roman temples. Located at Nimes in southern France, where it is known as La Maison Carree ("the square house"). The structure is now used as a museum of antiquities."—Webster, 1913

A Roman Temple

"The best preserved of Roman temples. Located at Nimes in southern France, where it is known as La Maison…

An ancient Roman villa.

A Roman Villa

An ancient Roman villa.

"A, via principalis. B, via documana. C, porta praetoria. D, porta decumana. E, portq principalis dextra. F, porta principalis sinistra. G, praetorium. H, forum. K,K, tribuni. L, auxilia. M, ara. N, tribunal. O, equites. P, pedites. Q, fossa. R, via quintana. S, agger. T, intervallum. V, vallum."—D'ooge & Eastman, 1917

Castra Romana

"A, via principalis. B, via documana. C, porta praetoria. D, porta decumana. E, portq principalis dextra.…

A poster about Rome's "Legendary Period" 753-509 B.C.

Rome Poster

A poster about Rome's "Legendary Period" 753-509 B.C.

A poster about Rome's Republic 509-31 B.C.

Rome Poster

A poster about Rome's Republic 509-31 B.C.

A poster about the Roman Empire 31 B.C.-476 A.D.

Rome Poster

A poster about the Roman Empire 31 B.C.-476 A.D.

A poster about the Rome's social customs.

Rome Poster

A poster about the Rome's social customs.

"Constructed by Aurelian and rebuilt by Honorius. The material is concrete faced with brick; thickness, 13 feet; greatest height, 58 feet. This is still the wall of the modern city, although at present no effort is made to keep it in repair."—Webster, 1913

The Wall of Rome

"Constructed by Aurelian and rebuilt by Honorius. The material is concrete faced with brick; thickness,…

The scutum was a semi-cylindrical shield used by ancient Roman legionaries.

Scutum

The scutum was a semi-cylindrical shield used by ancient Roman legionaries.

The scutum was a semi-cylindrical shield used by ancient Roman legionaries.

Scutum

The scutum was a semi-cylindrical shield used by ancient Roman legionaries.

The scutum was a semi-cylindrical shield used by ancient Roman legionaries.

Scutum

The scutum was a semi-cylindrical shield used by ancient Roman legionaries.

The scutum was a semi-cylindrical shield used by ancient Roman legionaries.

Scutum

The scutum was a semi-cylindrical shield used by ancient Roman legionaries.

An illustration of two lictors, members of a special class of Roman civil servants. Lictors had special tasks of attending and guarding magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium; essentially, a bodyguard. The origin of the tradition of lictors goes back to the time when Rome was a kingdom, perhaps acquired from their Etruscan neighbours.

Roman Civil Servants

An illustration of two lictors, members of a special class of Roman civil servants. Lictors had special…

The sestertius or sesterce was an ancient silver coin during the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.

Sestertius

The sestertius or sesterce was an ancient silver coin during the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.

(221-35 B.C.) Roman Emperor

Alexander Severus

(221-35 B.C.) Roman Emperor

"Walls of Signia. The colony of Signia was said to have been founded by the last Tarquin; but its possession was lost in the early years of the republic." -Allen, 1890

Walls of Signia

"Walls of Signia. The colony of Signia was said to have been founded by the last Tarquin; but its possession…

"A runaway slave, if recaptured, was sometimes compelled to wear a metal collar riveted about his neck."—Webster, 1913

A Slave's Collar

"A runaway slave, if recaptured, was sometimes compelled to wear a metal collar riveted about his neck."—Webster,…

A soldier of the Roman Empire.

Light-Armed Soldier

A soldier of the Roman Empire.