Bones of the Ankle and Foot. Labels: m, metatarsal bones; p, phalanges; ca, os calcis, or heel bone.

Bones of the Ankle and Foot

Bones of the Ankle and Foot. Labels: m, metatarsal bones; p, phalanges; ca, os calcis, or heel bone.

"The bones of the arm. a, humerus; b, ulna; c, radius; d, the carpus; e, the fifth metacarpal; f, the three phalanges of the fifth digit (little finger)." —Martin, 1917

Arm Bones

"The bones of the arm. a, humerus; b, ulna; c, radius; d, the carpus; e, the fifth metacarpal; f, the…

"Bones of fore foot of existing Artiodactyle. Pig (Sus scrofa)." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Artiodactyles

"Bones of fore foot of existing Artiodactyle. Pig (Sus scrofa)." —The Encyclopedia Britannica,…

"Bones of fore foot of existing Artiodactyle. Red Deer (Cervus elaphus)." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Artiodactyles

"Bones of fore foot of existing Artiodactyle. Red Deer (Cervus elaphus)." —The Encyclopedia Britannica,…

"Side view of the axis, the second cervical vertebra."—Finley, 1917

Axis

"Side view of the axis, the second cervical vertebra."—Finley, 1917

A bird resting on the ground, near some bones.

Bird

A bird resting on the ground, near some bones.

"Shows how the bones of the arm (a), forearm (b), and hand (c), are twisted, and form a conical screw."—Pettigrew, 1874

Wing of Bird

"Shows how the bones of the arm (a), forearm (b), and hand (c), are twisted, and form a conical screw."—Pettigrew,…

Bone

Bone

Bone

This figure shows a thigh bone that has been softened by exposing it to acid, then twisted in a knot to demonstrate it's flexibility. Bones are composed of a "mineral" or hard substance and an "animal" or soft substance. The animal component can be removed by exposing the bone to extreme heat, causing the bone to become brittle and break easily. Similarly, the mineral component can be removed by exposing the bone to acid. Once the brittle mineral part is removed by the acid, the bone is soft and flexible.

Bone Exposed to Acid and Twisted

This figure shows a thigh bone that has been softened by exposing it to acid, then twisted in a knot…

Transverse section of femur of a human embryo about eleven weeks old. Labels: a, rudimentary Haversian canal in cross sections; b, in longitudinal section; c, osteoblast; d, newly formed osseous substance of a lighter color; e, that of greater age; f, lacunae with their cells; g, a cell still united to an osteoblast.

Formation of Compact Bone in a Human

Transverse section of femur of a human embryo about eleven weeks old. Labels: a, rudimentary Haversian…

Transverse section through the tibia of a fetal kitten. Labels: P, Periosteum. O, Osteogenetic layer of periosteum showing the osteoblasts newly formed bones. B, the periosteal bone deposited in successive layers beneath the periosteum and ensheathing E, the spongy endochondral bone; represented as more deeply shaded. Within the trabeculae of endochondral spongy bone are seen the medulla, with V, veins. In the lower half of the figure the endochondral spongy bone has been completely absorbed.

Formation of Compact Bone in a Kitten

Transverse section through the tibia of a fetal kitten. Labels: P, Periosteum. O, Osteogenetic layer…

Schematic diagram, showing epiphysis and diaphysis and line of ossification. Labels: Ep, epiphysis of endochondral bone; zpt, zone of proliferation; zc, zone of calcification; ca, cartilage.

Bone Ossification

Schematic diagram, showing epiphysis and diaphysis and line of ossification. Labels: Ep, epiphysis of…

If we divide any of the long bones longitudinally, we find two kinds of structure, the hard or compact, and the alveolar or spongy. Indeed there is no bone that does not exhibit to some extend both of these structures; the compact forming its external, and the spongy its internal part. These two formations are clearly seen in the bones which compose the skull, as in the following cut, with the spongy or cancellated structure between them. This serves to illustrate the structure of all of the flat bones.

Bone Structure

If we divide any of the long bones longitudinally, we find two kinds of structure, the hard or compact,…

Transverse section of compact tissue of humerus, magnified about 150 diameters. Three of the Haversian canals are seen, with their concentric rings faintly indicated; also the lacunae, with the canaliculi extending from them across the direction of the encircling lamellae, or concentric rings.

Bone Tissue of Humerus

Transverse section of compact tissue of humerus, magnified about 150 diameters. Three of the Haversian…

A diagram of the relative position of the bone, cartilage, and synovial membrane. Labels: 1,The extremities of two bones to form a joint. 2, The cartilage that covers the end of the bone. 3, The synovial membrane, which covers the cartilage of both bones and is then doubled back from one to the other, represented by the dotted lines.

Position of the Bone, Cartilage, and Synovial Membranes

A diagram of the relative position of the bone, cartilage, and synovial membrane. Labels: 1,The extremities…

Cross section of developing bone of human fetus of four months. Labels: a, periostem; b, boundary between endochondral and periosteal bone; c, perichondral bone; d, remains of area of calcification; e, endochondral bone; f, f', blood vessels; g, g', developing Haversian spaces; h, marrow; i, blood vessels.

Developing Bone

Cross section of developing bone of human fetus of four months. Labels: a, periostem; b, boundary between…

Longitudinal section of compact bone, ground and dried.

Longitudinal Section of Compact Bone

Longitudinal section of compact bone, ground and dried.

A thin slice of bone, highly magnified, showing the lacunae, the tiny tubs (canaliculi) radiating from them, and four Huversian canals, three seen crosswise and one lengthwise.

A Magnified View of a Bone

A thin slice of bone, highly magnified, showing the lacunae, the tiny tubs (canaliculi) radiating from…

The bone contains a multitude of small irregular spaces, approximately fusiform in shape, called lacunae, with very minute canals leading from them and anastomosing with similar little prolongations from the other lacunae. Shown is a transverse section of compact bony tissue of a humerus. Three of the Haversian canals are seen, with their concentric rings; also the lacunae, with the canaliculi were filled with debris in grinding down the section, and therefore appear black in the figure, which represents the object as viewed with transmitted light. The Haversian systems are so closely packed in this section that scarcely any interstitial lamellae are visible.

Bone, Microscopic Structure of

The bone contains a multitude of small irregular spaces, approximately fusiform in shape, called lacunae,…

The bone contains a multitude of small irregular spaces, approximately fusiform in shape, called lacunae, with very minute canals leading from them and anastomosing with similar little prolongations from the other lacunae. Shown is a longitudinal section from the human ulna, showing Haversian canal, lacunae, and canaliculi.

Microscopic Structure of Bone

The bone contains a multitude of small irregular spaces, approximately fusiform in shape, called lacunae,…

A small piece of bone, ground very thin and highly magnified. "If a bit of bone is still more magnified we find that very small cavities called lacunae lie between the lamelae; from each lacuna radiate many extremely fine tubes, the canaliculi, so that it looks like a small animal with a great many legs. The innermost canaliculi open into the Haversian canal of the system to which they belong, and those of various lacunae communicate with one another, so that a set of passages is provided through which liquid which transudes from the blood vessel in the Haversian canal can ooze through the bone." —Newell, 1900.

Section of Bone

A small piece of bone, ground very thin and highly magnified. "If a bit of bone is still more magnified…

Transverse section of compact bone (metatarsal); the section has been ground and dried, hence the lacunae are filled with air.

Transverse Section of Compact Bone

Transverse section of compact bone (metatarsal); the section has been ground and dried, hence the lacunae…

A cervical vertebra of the spine, inferior surface. Labels: 1, spinous process, slightly bifid; 4, transverse process; 5, articular process, inferior surface. Below the arch, or hollow portion, is seen the solid portion, or body.

Human Cervical Vertebra Bone

A cervical vertebra of the spine, inferior surface. Labels: 1, spinous process, slightly bifid; 4, transverse…

The sternum of a chick three days old.

Chick Sternum

The sternum of a chick three days old.

"When a bone is broken, blood trickles out between the incjured parts, and afterwards gives place to a sticky, watery fluid, which gradually becomes thicker, like a syrup or jelly. This is slowly replaced by a new bone structure and forms a kind of cement to gold together the broken ends." — Blaisedell, 1904

Broken Clavicle

"When a bone is broken, blood trickles out between the incjured parts, and afterwards gives place to…

The human clavicle bone (anterior portion of the shoulder girdle).

The Human Clavicle

The human clavicle bone (anterior portion of the shoulder girdle).

"Compact bone consists of a series of concentric layers of bone disposed around a canal called the Haversian canal which affords passage for the blood-vessels." — Richardson, 1906

Compact Bone

"Compact bone consists of a series of concentric layers of bone disposed around a canal called the Haversian…

A human skull viewed from the top.

Cranium

A human skull viewed from the top.

This illustration shows a cross mill and the sieves used to crush and filter bones in glue manufacturing.

Cross Mill and Sieves (Glue)

This illustration shows a cross mill and the sieves used to crush and filter bones in glue manufacturing.

Cuttlefish "bone" or internal shell. The fine point at the base structure represents the guard of the Belemnite.

Cuttlebone

Cuttlefish "bone" or internal shell. The fine point at the base structure represents the guard of the…

"An internal support of a calcareous nature, and formed in laminae; this is the well-known <em>cuttlefish bone</em>, used fro cage birds, and also for making <em>pounce</em>; when reduced to powder, it is employed as a mould for fine castings." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Bone of the cuttle-fish

"An internal support of a calcareous nature, and formed in laminae; this is the well-known cuttlefish

"The bones in the extremities of this the fleetest of quadrupeds are inclined very obliquely towards each other, and towards the scapular and iliac bones. This arrangement increases the leverage of the muscular system and confers great rapidity on the moving parts."&mdash;Pettigrew, 1874

Skeleton of the Deer

"The bones in the extremities of this the fleetest of quadrupeds are inclined very obliquely towards…

"Restoration of Dinoceras Mirabile." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Dinoceras Mirabile

"Restoration of Dinoceras Mirabile." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

"A. Pelvis and bones of the leg of the Leon or Diver; i, Innominate bone; f, Thighbone (femur); r, Tibia; r, Fibula, together forming the shank; m, Tarso-metatarsus; p Phalanges of the toes. B, Tail of the Golden Eagle; s, Ploughshare-shaped bone, carrying the great tail-feathers." &mdash; Winston's Encyclopedia, 1919

Diver Bones

"A. Pelvis and bones of the leg of the Leon or Diver; i, Innominate bone; f, Thighbone (femur); r, Tibia;…

"Upper and lower teeth of one side of the mouth of a dolphin, as an example of homodont type of dentition. The bone covering the outer side of the roots of the teeth has been removed to show the simple character." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Dolphin Teeth

"Upper and lower teeth of one side of the mouth of a dolphin, as an example of homodont type of dentition.…

Side view of the dorsal vertebra.

Dorsal vertebra

Side view of the dorsal vertebra.

"1, malleus, or hammer; 2, incus, or anvil; 3, stapes, or stirrup." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Bones of the ear

"1, malleus, or hammer; 2, incus, or anvil; 3, stapes, or stirrup." — Blaisedell, 1904

"Across the middle ear a chain of three small bones stretches from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear. These bones are called from their shape the <em>malleus</em> (hammer), the <em>incus</em> (anvil), and the <em>stapes</em> (stirrup)." — Ritchie, 1918

Bones of the Ear

"Across the middle ear a chain of three small bones stretches from the tympanic membrane to the inner…

"The pelvis of the Echidna; sa, sacrum; il, illum; is, ischium; p, pubis; m, marsupial bone." &mdash; Chambers, 1881

Echidna Pelvis

"The pelvis of the Echidna; sa, sacrum; il, illum; is, ischium; p, pubis; m, marsupial bone." —…

The fossilized skeleton of an elephant.

Fossil elephant

The fossilized skeleton of an elephant.

The fossilized skeleton of an elk.

Fossilized elk

The fossilized skeleton of an elk.

Ethmoid bone, posterior surface. The ethmoid bone is an exceedingly light, spongy bone, placed between the two orbits and at the root of the nose, contributing to form a part of each of these cavities. Label: 2, cribriform, or perforated plate.

Ethmoid Bone of the Human Skull

Ethmoid bone, posterior surface. The ethmoid bone is an exceedingly light, spongy bone, placed between…

"The <em>femur</em>, or thigh bone, the largest and heaviest bone in the body, reaches from the hip to the knee. It has a rounded head, which fits into the cuplike cavity in the hip bone which has already been mentioned." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Femur

"The femur, or thigh bone, the largest and heaviest bone in the body, reaches from the hip…

The anterior surface of the right femur.

Femur

The anterior surface of the right femur.

The posterior surface of the right femur.

Femur

The posterior surface of the right femur.

"The Right Femur sawed in Two Lengthwise." — Blaisedell, 1904

Cross Section of a Femur

"The Right Femur sawed in Two Lengthwise." — Blaisedell, 1904

The Femur (upper leg bone) is the longest, largest, and strongest bone in the skeleton. Labels: b, rounded head; n, neck; gtr, greater trochanter; ltr, lesser trochanter.

Human Femur Bone

The Femur (upper leg bone) is the longest, largest, and strongest bone in the skeleton. Labels: b, rounded…

"Anterior View of Human Right Femur. ec, external condyle; etu, external tuberosity; ic, internal condyle; itu, internal tuberosity; ltr, lesser trochanter; gtr, great trochanter; h, head; n, neck." -Whitney, 1911

Anterior View of Human Right Femur

"Anterior View of Human Right Femur. ec, external condyle; etu, external tuberosity; ic, internal condyle;…

"The Fibula tied into a Knot after the Mineral Matter has been dissolved by Acid." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Softened fibula

"The Fibula tied into a Knot after the Mineral Matter has been dissolved by Acid." — Blaisedell,…

"<em>A</em>, last bone of finger; <em>B</em>, true skin on the dorsal surface of finger; <em>C</em>, outer skin; <em>D</em>, true skin; <em>E</em>, bed of nail; <em>F</em>, true skin of pulp of finger." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Longitudinal seciont of a fingernail

"A, last bone of finger; B, true skin on the dorsal surface of finger; C,…

"The bones are fastened together, kept in place, and their movements limited, by tough and strong bands, or straps, called <em>ligaments</em>, from a word meaning to bind." — Blaisedell, 1904

Ligaments of the Foot and Ankle

"The bones are fastened together, kept in place, and their movements limited, by tough and strong bands,…

The dorsal surface of the bones in the right foot.

Foot Bones

The dorsal surface of the bones in the right foot.

The plantar surface of the bones in the right foot.

Foot Bones

The plantar surface of the bones in the right foot.

"The foot is built in the form of a half-dome or half-arch. This is to afford a broad, strong support surface for the support of the weight of the body. The bones of the toes and the heel form the piers, while the little bones wedged in between the metatarsal bones and the heel make up the keystone of the arch. This arch gives a certain amount of spring and elasticity to the feet, and hence it is of the upmost importance in preventing jars and jolts." — Blaisedell, 1904

Bones of the Foot

"The foot is built in the form of a half-dome or half-arch. This is to afford a broad, strong support…

The sacrum of a young fowl; natural size seen from below.

Fowl Sacrum

The sacrum of a young fowl; natural size seen from below.

A fracture of the fibula, with dislocation of the foot outward.

Fractured Fibula

A fracture of the fibula, with dislocation of the foot outward.

An oblique fracture of the shaft of the tibia.

Fractured Tibia

An oblique fracture of the shaft of the tibia.

Frontal bone of the human skull, outer surface. The frontal bone forms the forehead, roof of the orbital cavities, and the nasal cavity. Labels: 1, frontal eminence; 7, roof of orbital cavitiy; 10, orbital arch.

Frontal Bone of the Human Skull

Frontal bone of the human skull, outer surface. The frontal bone forms the forehead, roof of the orbital…

The skeletal structure of a gorilla.

Gorilla Skeleton

The skeletal structure of a gorilla.

A plan of the development of the bones of the hand.

Hand Development

A plan of the development of the bones of the hand.