"A cutting-tool somewhat like an ax, but having the blade placed at right angles to the handle and formed to a curve nearly corresponding to its sweep through the air when in use."-Whitney, 1902

Adz

"A cutting-tool somewhat like an ax, but having the blade placed at right angles to the handle and formed…

"A cutting-tool somewhat like an ax, but having the blade placed at right angles to the handle and formed to a curve nearly corresponding to its sweep through the air when in use."-Whitney, 1902

Adz

"A cutting-tool somewhat like an ax, but having the blade placed at right angles to the handle and formed…

"A tool adapted for molding and rabbeting, used in panel-work by coach- and pattern-makers."-Whitney, 1902

Adz-plane

"A tool adapted for molding and rabbeting, used in panel-work by coach- and pattern-makers."-Whitney,…

An illustration of four various axes: "1, Horseman's hammer of about the time of Edward IV; 2, Martel-de-fer, time of Henry VIII; 3, Martel-de-fer, time of Edward VI; 4, Martel-de-fer with hand-gun, time of Queen Elizabeth." -Century, 1889

Four Axes

An illustration of four various axes: "1, Horseman's hammer of about the time of Edward IV; 2, Martel-de-fer,…

An outline of a cow, illustrating the different cuts of beef.

Cuts of beef

An outline of a cow, illustrating the different cuts of beef.

"The names and prices of various cuts of beed." —Davison, 1910

Cuts of beef

"The names and prices of various cuts of beed." —Davison, 1910

"Argent, a boar's head proper couped. COUPED. The head or limbs of any animal cut close is called couped." -Hall, 1862

Boar Couped

"Argent, a boar's head proper couped. COUPED. The head or limbs of any animal cut close is called couped."…

Some chisels for cutting wood have two bezels, one on each side of the blade, as in the gardener's grafting chisel. Such a double-faced chisel is used for splitting open the limb of a tree.

Box Chisel

Some chisels for cutting wood have two bezels, one on each side of the blade, as in the gardener's grafting…

Grafting is a horticultural operation which consists in placing together the two cut surfaces of different plants in such a way that they shall unite and become an organic unity. The rooted plant which is to receive the graft is called the 'stock'; the cutting which is to be applied to the stock, and to obtain its nourishment from it, is called the 'scion'. This illustration shows the Cleft method of grafting.

Cleft Grafting

Grafting is a horticultural operation which consists in placing together the two cut surfaces of different…

"Cleft-grafting is another method in common use. The stock a is cleft down from the horizontal cut d, and the scion, when cut to a thin wedge form, as shown at c and e, is inserted into the cleft; the whole is then bound up and clayed as in the former case. This is not so goood a plan as wip-grafting; it is improved by sloping the stock on one side to the size of the graft." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Cleft-Grafting

"Cleft-grafting is another method in common use. The stock a is cleft down from the horizontal cut d,…

Grafting is a horticultural operation which consists in placing together the two cut surfaces of different plants in such a way that they shall unite and become an organic unity. The rooted plant which is to receive the graft is called the 'stock'; the cutting which is to be applied to the stock, and to obtain its nourishment from it, is called the 'scion'. This illustration shows the Crown method of grafting.

Crown Grafting

Grafting is a horticultural operation which consists in placing together the two cut surfaces of different…

"Crown-grafting is preferable to cleft-grafting, inasmuch as it leaves no open spaces in the wood. The stock b is cut off horizontally or nearly so, and a slit is then cut in the bark f, f, a wedge-shaped piece of ivory being inserted to raise the bark; the scion is then cut to the same wedge-shaped form g, h, and inserted in the space opened for it between the albumen and the bark, after which it is tied down and clayed over in the manner already described." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Crown-Grafting

"Crown-grafting is preferable to cleft-grafting, inasmuch as it leaves no open spaces in the wood. The…

"Cut Gems. A, brilliant; B, rose; C, goute de suif; D, en cabochon." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Cut Gems

"Cut Gems. A, brilliant; B, rose; C, goute de suif; D, en cabochon." —The Encyclopedia Britannica,…

This machine features a paper roll holding spindle with a cutting attachment. A paper cutter is a tool often found in offices and classrooms, designed to cut a large set of paper at once with a perfectly straight line.

Paper Holder and Cutter

This machine features a paper roll holding spindle with a cutting attachment. A paper cutter is a tool…

This pitchfork design eases he effort one needs to apply to cut twine

Twine Cutter

This pitchfork design eases he effort one needs to apply to cut twine

This illustration shows a frame with cutting wires, and a machine capable of cutting 20,000 glue cakes per hour.

Cutting Machine (Glue Manufacturing)

This illustration shows a frame with cutting wires, and a machine capable of cutting 20,000 glue cakes…

"Pure crystalline carbon, the hardest substance known, possessing great lustre owing to its great refracting power." — Williams, 1889

Diamond

"Pure crystalline carbon, the hardest substance known, possessing great lustre owing to its great refracting…

The diamond is cut to show the stone's brilliance, creating different parts to the cut: table, crown, girdle, pavilion, culet.

Diamond Cut

The diamond is cut to show the stone's brilliance, creating different parts to the cut: table, crown,…

Various types of square cut diamonds. Top row: Old square cut diamonds. Bottom row: English square cut diamonds.

Square Cut Diamonds

Various types of square cut diamonds. Top row: Old square cut diamonds. Bottom row: English square cut…

One very useful knife has a long blade with a cutting edge on one side, and a handle at each end, placed a a right angle with the blade. Such a two-handled knife is called a draw knife, because it is used with both hands and is pulled or drawn forward in making a cut with a blade.

Draw Knife (Colonial Tool)

One very useful knife has a long blade with a cutting edge on one side, and a handle at each end, placed…

A woodworking tool used to cut, flatten, and smooth areas of wood by abrasion.

Wooden Float

A woodworking tool used to cut, flatten, and smooth areas of wood by abrasion.

A flat chisel gives a straight cut, and the chips are flat. Work done with this tool is 'chiseled out'.

Framing Socket Chisel

A flat chisel gives a straight cut, and the chips are flat. Work done with this tool is 'chiseled out'.

"The part of any solid between two planes, which may be either parallel or inclined to each other: as, the frustum of a cone ... In the figure the dotted line, c, indicates the part of the cone cut off to form the frustum, f." -Whitney, 1911

Frustum of a Cone

"The part of any solid between two planes, which may be either parallel or inclined to each other: as,…

(1.) The guillotine is an instrument employed for the purpose of decapitation. It was officially introduced into France as the means of inflicting capital punishment in April, 1792. It was named after its reputed inventor, Dr. Joseph Ingace-Guillotin, who, contrary to popular belief, died a natural death, and not a victim of his own invention. The instrument consists of two upright posts held together at the top by a cross beam, the former being perpendicularly so grooved as to allow of the falling in a direct line a broad steel blade, whose edge is cut obliquely. The latter, sometimes weighted with lead, descends upon the neck of the criminal immediately after the cord which holds it up is released by the executioner.
(2.) A guillotine is a machine, similar in name and in general construction to the above, employed by bookbinders. It is used for cutting paper and trimming the edges of books after the sheets have been sewn together.

Guillotine

(1.) The guillotine is an instrument employed for the purpose of decapitation. It was officially introduced…

Some knives have the handle placed at a right angle with the blade. The farmer in cutting hay from the haymow in his bard uses a large knife with such a right angle handle and calls it a hay-knife.

Hay Knife

Some knives have the handle placed at a right angle with the blade. The farmer in cutting hay from the…

A saw custom suited for cutting through ice. Ice saws may be used to open a hole in the ice covering a lake for those attempting to go 'ice fishing' in the winter.

Ice Saw

A saw custom suited for cutting through ice. Ice saws may be used to open a hole in the ice covering…

Grafting is a horticultural operation which consists in placing together the two cut surfaces of different plants in such a way that they shall unite and become an organic unity. The rooted plant which is to receive the graft is called the 'stock'; the cutting which is to be applied to the stock, and to obtain its nourishment from it, is called the 'scion'. This illustration shows the In-arching method of grafting. This method is also known as Grafting by Approach.

In-Arching (Grafting)

Grafting is a horticultural operation which consists in placing together the two cut surfaces of different…

Grafting is a horticultural operation which consists in placing together the two cut surfaces of different plants in such a way that they shall unite and become an organic unit. The rooted plant which is to receive the graft is called the 'stock'; the cutting which is to be applied to the stock, and to obtain its nourishment from it, is called the 'scion'. This illustration shows the inlaying method of grafting.

Inlaying (Grafting)

Grafting is a horticultural operation which consists in placing together the two cut surfaces of different…

Tobacco knifes vary greatly from the tobacco leave gathering process, where larger type machetes are used in extraction and cultivation to tobacco cigar portioning which a sharp cutting edge is used to slice a cigar tip, or body.

Tobacco Cutting Knife

Tobacco knifes vary greatly from the tobacco leave gathering process, where larger type machetes are…

A machine for cutting down standing grain, usually worked by a pair of horses, the cutting machinery being driven by being connected with the wheels on which the machine is drawn over the field.

Reaping Machine

A machine for cutting down standing grain, usually worked by a pair of horses, the cutting machinery…

At first scissors seem to have been small, awkward things, with straight blades and handles. Now they are made in many different styles, shapes and sizes, and are adapted to a great variety or uses. Some have bent blades, others curved or bent handles, some are long, some very thick and short, some have rings for the fingers or thumb.

Manicure Scissors

At first scissors seem to have been small, awkward things, with straight blades and handles. Now they…

An illustration of two adult men chopping a tree with an ax.

Men Chopping Tree

An illustration of two adult men chopping a tree with an ax.

Terms used to define features of the earth on a topographical map used by the military.

Military and Topographical Terms

Terms used to define features of the earth on a topographical map used by the military.

Shell of a Nummulite cut transversely and in part horizontally.

Shell of a Nummulite

Shell of a Nummulite cut transversely and in part horizontally.

"Pincers used to cut wire." -Avery 1895

Pincers

"Pincers used to cut wire." -Avery 1895

"A set of stocks, dies, and taps for cutting threads on bolts and inside of nuts."—The Federal Digest, 1921

Screw Plate

"A set of stocks, dies, and taps for cutting threads on bolts and inside of nuts."—The Federal…

With a chisel and mallet a sculptor could strike thirty blows a minute; with the new pneumatic chisel he could strike a thousand a minute. The sculptor's hand and mind were then enabled to focus solely on guiding the chisel rather than striking it.

Pneumatic Chisel

With a chisel and mallet a sculptor could strike thirty blows a minute; with the new pneumatic chisel…

"Propagation by Cuttings." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Propagation

"Propagation by Cuttings." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

The florist and gardener use scissors with a curved blade for pruning, and a delicate pair for gathering flowers, and large shears, called pruning shears, for trimming hedge plants.

Pruning Shears

The florist and gardener use scissors with a curved blade for pruning, and a delicate pair for gathering…

Rukenaw the ape, Reynard's aunt, helps Reynard prepare to fight with Isegrim the wolf. She shaves him and oils him up so the wolf cannot catch him.

Reynard the Fox: Rukenaw Shaving Reynard

Rukenaw the ape, Reynard's aunt, helps Reynard prepare to fight with Isegrim the wolf. She shaves him…

Grafting is a horticultural operation which consists in placing together the two cut surfaces of different plants in such a way that they shall unite and become an organic unity. The rooted plant which is to receive the graft is called the 'stock'; the cutting which is to be applied to the stock, and to obtain its nourishment from it, is called the 'scion'. This illustration shows the Root method of grafting.

Root Grafting

Grafting is a horticultural operation which consists in placing together the two cut surfaces of different…

"Fahlias and paeonies may be grafted by inserting young shoots into the neck of one of the fleshy roots of each kind respectively the best method of doing so being to cut a triangular section near the upper end of the root, just large enough to admit the young shoot when slightly pared away in two sides to give it a similar form." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Root-Grafting

"Fahlias and paeonies may be grafted by inserting young shoots into the neck of one of the fleshy roots…

"In the case of large woody plants thus worked the grafted roots, after the operation is completed, are planted in nursery beds, so that the upper buds only are exposed to the atmosphere, as shown at c in the figure." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Root-Grafting

"In the case of large woody plants thus worked the grafted roots, after the operation is completed,…

A rose cut is a cut of gemstone. In this cut, the upper surface is shaped into triangular facets of nearly equal size throughout.

Rose Cut

A rose cut is a cut of gemstone. In this cut, the upper surface is shaped into triangular facets of…

Grafting is a horticultural operation which consists in placing together the two cut surfaces of different plants in such a way that they shall unite and become an organic unity. The rooted plant which is to receive the graft is called the 'stock'; the cutting which is to be applied to the stock, and to obtain its nourishment from it, is called the 'scion'. This illustration shows the Saddle method of grafting.

Saddle Grafting

Grafting is a horticultural operation which consists in placing together the two cut surfaces of different…

A saw is a tool that uses a hard blade or wire with an abrasive edge to cut through softer materials. The cutting edge of a saw is either a serrated blade or an abrasive. This tool may be worked by hand, or powered by steam, water, or electric power.

Abrasive Saw Blade

A saw is a tool that uses a hard blade or wire with an abrasive edge to cut through softer materials.…

A saw the cutting part of which is annular and s mounted upon a central circular disk.

Rim Saw

A saw the cutting part of which is annular and s mounted upon a central circular disk.

A cutting instrument consisting of two cutting blades movable on a pin in the center.

Scissors

A cutting instrument consisting of two cutting blades movable on a pin in the center.

Scissors are hand-operated cutting instruments. They consist of a pair of metal blades, or tangs, connected in such a way that the sharpened edges slide against each other.

Large Pair of Scissors

Scissors are hand-operated cutting instruments. They consist of a pair of metal blades, or tangs, connected…

Used for mowing and reaping, consisting of a long curved blade fixed at an angle to a long bent handle.

Attachment Scythe

Used for mowing and reaping, consisting of a long curved blade fixed at an angle to a long bent handle.

Scissors or shears for cutting cloth.

Shears

Scissors or shears for cutting cloth.

Metal cutting shears although similar to a pair of scissors feature a fulcrum closer to the cutting blades than the handles to increase mechanical advantage. Shears are able to cut through many thin sheets of metal.

Shears for Cutting Metal

Metal cutting shears although similar to a pair of scissors feature a fulcrum closer to the cutting…

Ordinary sheep-shears are not in any sense a pair of scissors. These simple shears have no pivot on which the blades turn.

Sheep-shearing Shears

Ordinary sheep-shears are not in any sense a pair of scissors. These simple shears have no pivot on…

"The simplest and most generally practised form of budding is that called Shield budding or T-budding. The operator should be provided with a budding-knife in which the cutting edge of the blade is rounded off at the point, and which has a thin ivory or bone handle, for raising the bark of the stock. A horizonal incision is made in the bark quite down to the wood, and from this a perpendicular slit is drawn downwards to the extent of perhaps an inch, so that the slit has a resemblance to the letter T, as at a. A bud is then cut by a clean incision from the tree intended to be propagated, having a portion of the wood attached to it, and so that the whole may be an inch and a half long, as at d." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Shield-Budding

"The simplest and most generally practised form of budding is that called Shield budding or T-budding.…

Grafting is a horticultural operation which consists in placing together the two cut surfaces of different plants in such a way that they shall unite and become an organic unity. The rooted plant which is to receive the graft is called the 'stock'; the cutting which is to be applied to the stock, and to obtain its nourishment from it, is called the 'scion'. This illustration shows the Side Grafting method.

Side Grafting

Grafting is a horticultural operation which consists in placing together the two cut surfaces of different…

A split cut is a cut of gemstone. It is similar to a trap cut.

Split Cut

A split cut is a cut of gemstone. It is similar to a trap cut.

Stone tranchet Neolithic age implement used for cutting. Not drawn to scale.

Neolithic Implements Stone Tranchet

Stone tranchet Neolithic age implement used for cutting. Not drawn to scale.

A flat chisel gives a straight cut, and the chips are flat. Work done with this tool is 'chiseled out'.

Tang Chisel

A flat chisel gives a straight cut, and the chips are flat. Work done with this tool is 'chiseled out'.

Where a chisel has a hollow or round blade, it is called a gouge. A gouge gives a hollow cut, and the chips are curved or crescent shaped. Work done with this tool is called 'gouging'.

Tang Gouge

Where a chisel has a hollow or round blade, it is called a gouge. A gouge gives a hollow cut, and the…

"Rock-cut temple at Ipsambul, on the Nile." —D'Anvers, 1895

Egyptian temple

"Rock-cut temple at Ipsambul, on the Nile." —D'Anvers, 1895