"A form of air-engine which was invented in 1816 by the Rev. R. Stirling is of special interest as embodying the earliest application of what is known as the "regenerative" principle, the principle namely that heat may be deposited by a substance at one stage of its action and taken up again at another stage but with little loss, and with a great resulting change in the substance's temperature at each of the two stages in the operation." —Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Stirling's Air Engine

"A form of air-engine which was invented in 1816 by the Rev. R. Stirling is of special interest as embodying…

"A machine for remobing air out of any given vessel, or forcing it in." — Williams, 1889

Air-pump

"A machine for remobing air out of any given vessel, or forcing it in." — Williams, 1889

"Hot-wire instruments working on the sag principle can be used in any position if properly contructed, and are very portable." —Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Hot-wire Ammeter

"Hot-wire instruments working on the sag principle can be used in any position if properly contructed,…

A man collecting his harvest using an ancient reaping-machine.

Ancient Reaping-machine

A man collecting his harvest using an ancient reaping-machine.

A cylinder with a triple threaded screw in a water tight case that revolves ater to the top for the irrigation of land.

Archime' dean Screw

A cylinder with a triple threaded screw in a water tight case that revolves ater to the top for the…

Device for transferring water up from a lower body.

Archimedean Screw

Device for transferring water up from a lower body.

"A machine for raising water, said to have been invented by Archimedes, during his stay in Egypt for draining and irrigating the land." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Archimedes Screw

"A machine for raising water, said to have been invented by Archimedes, during his stay in Egypt for…

"7-inch Armstrong Breech-loader." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Armstrong Breech-loader

"7-inch Armstrong Breech-loader." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

The Atwood machine (or Atwood's machine) was invented in 1784 by Rev. George Atwood as a laboratory experiment to verify the mechanical laws of uniformly accelerated motion. Atwood's machine is a common classroom demonstration used to illustrate principles of physics, specifically mechanics.

The Atwood Machine

The Atwood machine (or Atwood's machine) was invented in 1784 by Rev. George Atwood as a laboratory…

"Atwood's Machine. This difficulty has however been overcome by a curious piece of machinery invented by Mr. Atwood. This consists of an upright pillar, with a wheel on the top. The weights A and B are of the same size and are made to balance each other, exactly, being connected by a thread passing over the wheel. The ring R admits the weight A, to fall through it in its passage to the stage S, on which it rests. The right and stage slide up and down, and are fastened by a thumb screw. The pillar is a graduated scale, and M is a small bent wire, weighing a quarter of an ounce, and longer than the diameter of the ring." —Comstock, 1850

Atwood's Machine

"Atwood's Machine. This difficulty has however been overcome by a curious piece of machinery invented…

"Machine designed by Atwood to allow the measurement and calculation of the velocities of falling bodies at various points accurately and easily." —Quackenbos 1859

Atwood's Machine

"Machine designed by Atwood to allow the measurement and calculation of the velocities of falling bodies…

"A muffle furnace, employed for annealing, hardening, and tempering." —Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Automatic Oil Muffle Furnace

"A muffle furnace, employed for annealing, hardening, and tempering." —Encyclopedia Britannica,…

Babcock and Wilcox Water-tube Boiler, longitudinal section

Babcock and Wilcox Water-tube Boiler

Babcock and Wilcox Water-tube Boiler, longitudinal section

Babcock and Wilcox Water-tube Boiler, section at AB-front elevation

Babcock and Wilcox Water-tube Boiler

Babcock and Wilcox Water-tube Boiler, section at AB-front elevation

Belleville Boiler

Belleville Boiler

Belleville Boiler

A band used in transmitting power from one wheel to another.

Belt

A band used in transmitting power from one wheel to another.

A belt conveyor consists of two or more pulleys, with a continuous loop of material - the conveyor belt - that rotates about them. One or both of the pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward.

Conveyer Belt

A belt conveyor consists of two or more pulleys, with a continuous loop of material - the conveyor belt…

A belt conveyor is made up of two or more pulleys, with a continuos belt running through it. One or both of the pulleys

Dual Pulley Conveyer Belt

A belt conveyor is made up of two or more pulleys, with a continuos belt running through it. One or…

This illustration shows an example of a bevel gear.

Bevel (gear)

This illustration shows an example of a bevel gear.

This illustration shows a Blake Ore Breaker (stone crusher), used in a gold stamp mill. This crusher breaks the large, mined rocks containing the gold (ore) into small pieces, to then be reduced to the finest powder by stamps.

Blake Ore Breaker

This illustration shows a Blake Ore Breaker (stone crusher), used in a gold stamp mill. This crusher…

Blocking machine for blocking desings on book covers

Blocking Machine

Blocking machine for blocking desings on book covers

"An American machine, introduced into England by Mr. Ellis. It consists of an iron cylindrical casing A, open about a fourth part of its circumference (a to b) for admission of air, and an exit pipe B. Inside the casing is another cylinder, placed eccentrically to it, and which always fits close up against the wooden packing C. This cylinder acts as a driver for the three fan blades or pistons D, which are capable of passing out and in through longitudinal slits in its circumference. There is a shaft passing through the small cylinder, and concentric with it at the ends, but cranked in the middle part so as to become concentric with the casing. The inner cylinder revolves round the axis of the ends of the shaft, and on the cranked part revolve the fan blades or pistons, driven by the cylinder." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Blowing-Machine

"An American machine, introduced into England by Mr. Ellis. It consists of an iron cylindrical casing…

James Watt found the boring tool in his blacksmithing to be very difficult. "A young manufacturer named Wilkinson invented a guide for the boring tool, and machined cylinders of fifty inches diameter." -Hill, 1921

Boring Tool

James Watt found the boring tool in his blacksmithing to be very difficult. "A young manufacturer named…

"In 1629 Giovanni Branca, an Italian, contrived a machine which was employed for the various purposes of raising water, of sawing timber and pounding materials. His machine consisted of a wheel furnished with flat vanes around its circumference, like the boards of a paddle-wheel. Upon these vanes, steam was propelled from a close vessel, called an eolipile. A rotary motion was produced, and communicated to appropriate machinery. The results, however, of these and other discoveries made about this period, have never been rendered applicable to the purposes for which the modern steam engine is adapted." —Comstock, 1850

Brancas Engine

"In 1629 Giovanni Branca, an Italian, contrived a machine which was employed for the various purposes…

"A wheel turned by the force of water which is level with its centre." — Williams, 1889

Breast-wheel

"A wheel turned by the force of water which is level with its centre." — Williams, 1889

Telegraph cable laid at the bottom of the ocean or through festoons, allowing for gradual setting.

Telegraph Cable

Telegraph cable laid at the bottom of the ocean or through festoons, allowing for gradual setting.

A machine used for raising anchors on ships.

Capstan

A machine used for raising anchors on ships.

A diagram of a rail car unloader and storage plant.

Car Unloading & Storage Plant

A diagram of a rail car unloader and storage plant.

"Roller and Clearer Carding Machine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Carding Machine

"Roller and Clearer Carding Machine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

The catapult, a machine used for throwing heavy darts.

Catapult

The catapult, a machine used for throwing heavy darts.

This machine was used to create chains from sheet metal.

Machine, Chain Making

This machine was used to create chains from sheet metal.

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside of which is moistened with water and treated with chlorine gas to form a solution of Gold Chloride. This is then run off, and the gold precipitated , usually by means of Ferrous Sulphate or charcoal.

Chlorination Barrel

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside…

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside of which is moistened with water and treated with chlorine gas to form a solution of Gold Chloride. This is then run off, and the gold precipitated , usually by means of Ferrous Sulphate or charcoal.

Chlorination Barrel (End Section)

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside…

The butter churn is a device used to convert cream into butter. This is done through a mechanical process, frequently via a pole inserted through the lid of the churn, or via a crank used to turn a rotating device inside the churn. The agitation of the cream, caused by the mechanical motion of the device, disrupts the milk fat.

Butter Churn

The butter churn is a device used to convert cream into butter. This is done through a mechanical process,…

"A valve in pumps with a single flap, hinged at one edge, and consisting of a plate of leather a little larger than the valve aperture. The valve box is generally one and a half times the diameter of the valve opening." — Williams, 1889

Clack-valve

"A valve in pumps with a single flap, hinged at one edge, and consisting of a plate of leather a little…

A clevis assembly including a clevis body, a clevis loop pivotally mounted on the clevis body, a collar, a fastener, and a set screw assembly.

Clevis

A clevis assembly including a clevis body, a clevis loop pivotally mounted on the clevis body, a collar,…

"This machine consists essentially of a horizontal piston and cylinder engine fixed upon a platform carried upon four wheels, which are coupled together by side rods, so that on motion being communicated by means of a mitre wheel in the hind axle, it can be moved forward by hand. On the forward end of the frame are two bosses forming the centres for a pair of bell cranks or bent levers places close to the ground, and facing in opposite directions, either one of which can be connected with the piston rod. The outer arm of each lever carries a square socket, into which is fixed the pick, which has two cutting heads, one placed a little in front of the other so as to cut to the whole depth at one operation." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Coal-cutting Machine

"This machine consists essentially of a horizontal piston and cylinder engine fixed upon a platform…

"A small projection in machinery, used to impart motion. <em>C. wheel</em>, a wheel having cogs on its circumfrence." &mdash; Williams, 1889

Cog-wheel

"A small projection in machinery, used to impart motion. C. wheel, a wheel having cogs on its…

"Combing Machine." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Combing Machine

"Combing Machine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"The art of printing from movable types is of comparatively modern origin, only four hundred years having elapsed since the first book printed in this manner was issued from the press." &mdash;The Popular Cyclopedia, 1888

Compositor

"The art of printing from movable types is of comparatively modern origin, only four hundred years having…

"The operation of the condenser is the reverse of that of the air pump, and is a much more simple machine. The air pump, will deprive a vessel of its ordinary quantity of air. The condenser, on the contrary, will double or treble the ordinary quantity of air in a close vessel according to the force employed. This instrument consists of a pump barrel and piston, a, a stop-cock b, and the vessel c furnished with a valve opening downwards. The orifice d is to admit the air, when the piston is drawn up to the top of the barrel." &mdash;Comstock, 1850

Condenser

"The operation of the condenser is the reverse of that of the air pump, and is a much more simple machine.…

"Condie's Hammer." &mdash; The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Condie's Hammer

"Condie's Hammer." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

A car that has top that can be folded or removed

Automobile Convertible

A car that has top that can be folded or removed

An illustration of an anti-friction conveyor

Anti-Friction Conveyor

An illustration of an anti-friction conveyor

"General arrangement of Apron Conveyor for loading vessels, pans are 48 inches wide, 12 inches pitch, attached to chains working over sprockets at 24 fee centers. Capacity of conveyor is about 250 tons of coal per hour, material being received from a 42 inch M. & G. belt conveyor. The Apron Conveyor will work at any angle, the outer end being raised or lowered to suit vessel." -Meese, 1913

Apron Pan Conveyor

"General arrangement of Apron Conveyor for loading vessels, pans are 48 inches wide, 12 inches pitch,…

An diagram showing a belt conveyor from the top and side illustrating the arrangement of the drive end.

Belt Conveyor

An diagram showing a belt conveyor from the top and side illustrating the arrangement of the drive end.

An illustration of a continuous worm conveyor.

Continuous Worm Conveyor

An illustration of a continuous worm conveyor.

An illustration of an early flour mill conveyor.

Early Flour Mill Conveyor

An illustration of an early flour mill conveyor.

An illustration of a paddle worm conveyor.

Paddle Worm Conveyor

An illustration of a paddle worm conveyor.

"The metal cut away near the center reduces the weight and provides passages for air circulation." &mdash; Hawkins, 1917

Solid core disk

"The metal cut away near the center reduces the weight and provides passages for air circulation." —…

This machine cuts the corn and binds the stalks in bundles ready for shocking.

Cutting mechanism of corn-harvester

This machine cuts the corn and binds the stalks in bundles ready for shocking.

A check-row corn-planter, which plants two rows at once and rows the corn both ways.

Check-row corn-planter

A check-row corn-planter, which plants two rows at once and rows the corn both ways.

This illustration shows the machine used to compress cotton.

Cotton Compresser

This illustration shows the machine used to compress cotton.

"The Cotton-Gin, a machine that processes cotton."&mdash;E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

Cotton Gin

"The Cotton-Gin, a machine that processes cotton."—E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

Eli Whitney's cotton gin, which made the production of cotton many times more efficient.

Cotton Gin

Eli Whitney's cotton gin, which made the production of cotton many times more efficient.

A Cotton Gin (short for cotton engine) is a machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers from the seedpods and the sometimes sticky seeds, a job previously done by workers. These seeds are either used again to grow more cotton or, if badly damaged, are disposed of. It uses a combination of a wire screen and small wire hooks to pull the cotton through the screen, while brushes continuously remove the loose cotton lint to prevent jams. The term "gin" is an abbreviation for engine, and means "machine".

Cotton Gin

A Cotton Gin (short for cotton engine) is a machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers…

An illustration of a modified cotton gin.

Cotton Gin

An illustration of a modified cotton gin.

This mechanical drawing of a cotton gin depicts internal moving parts, where the machine was intended to separate cotton fibers from seeds.

Cotton Gin Machine

This mechanical drawing of a cotton gin depicts internal moving parts, where the machine was intended…

"Three-cylinder Opener, Beater, and Lap Machiine." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Cotton Machine

"Three-cylinder Opener, Beater, and Lap Machiine." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

A machine used in the 19th century to open cotton.

Cotton Opener

A machine used in the 19th century to open cotton.