The Comparative Anatomy ClipArt gallery offers 227 images of anatomy comparing numerous parts of humans and animals, showing similarities and differences among species and between different taxonomic orders.

In reptiles the alimentary canal differs much from that of mammals or birds. As a general rule, it is shorter in proportion to the trunk than in warm-blooded vertebrates. Labels: 1, esophagus; 2, stomach; 3, small intestine; 4,large intestine.

The Alimentary Canal of the Flying Lizard

In reptiles the alimentary canal differs much from that of mammals or birds. As a general rule, it is…

"Brain of alligator, from above. B. ol., olfactory bulb; G. p, epiphysis; HH, cerebellum; Med, spinal cord; MX, optic lobes; NH, medulla oblongata; VH, cerebral hemispheres; I-XI, cranial nerves; 1, 2, first and second spinal nerves." -Parker, 1900

Alligator Brain

"Brain of alligator, from above. B. ol., olfactory bulb; G. p, epiphysis; HH, cerebellum; Med, spinal…

"The innermost one of the membranes which envelop the embryo of the higher vertebrates,as mammals, birds, and reptile." -Whitney, 1902

Amnion

"The innermost one of the membranes which envelop the embryo of the higher vertebrates,as mammals, birds,…

The inner ear of a reptile (top), a bird (left) and an ox (right).

Animal Ears

The inner ear of a reptile (top), a bird (left) and an ox (right).

Wing of Bird; h Humerus or bone of upper arm; r and u Radius and Ulna, or bones of the forearm; c Carpus, or bones of the wrist; m Metacarpus, or bones of the root of the hand; p Phalanges, or bones of the fingers.

bones of arm

Wing of Bird; h Humerus or bone of upper arm; r and u Radius and Ulna, or bones of the forearm; c Carpus,…

The skeleton of a bat's wing.

Bat Wing

The skeleton of a bat's wing.

"A, right hind leg of a honey-bee (seen fron behind and within); B, the tibia. ti, seen from the outside, showing the collecting basket formed of stiff hairs." -Bergen, 1896

Bee Leg

"A, right hind leg of a honey-bee (seen fron behind and within); B, the tibia. ti, seen from the outside,…

"Diagram of the female genital organs of a Bird. c, cloaca; i, intestine; k, kidney; o, ovary with ova of different size; od., oviduct; o.f., funnel of the oviduct; o.o., opening of the oviduct into the cloaca; u, ureter; u.o., opening of ureter into the cloaca. Only one ovary and oviduct are fully developed in the Birds." -Galloway, 1915

Female Bird Genital Organs

"Diagram of the female genital organs of a Bird. c, cloaca; i, intestine; k, kidney; o, ovary with ova…

"Diagram of the urino-genital organs of a male Bird. ad., adrenal body; c, cloaca; i, intestine; k, kidney; t, testis; u, ureter; u.o., opening of ureter into the cloaca; v.d., vas deferens; v.d.o., opening of the vas deferens; v.s., vesicula seminalis." -Galloway, 1915

Male Bird Genital Organs

"Diagram of the urino-genital organs of a male Bird. ad., adrenal body; c, cloaca; i, intestine; k,…

"Fore-limb and hind-limb compared. H., Humerus; R., radius; U., ulna; r., radiale; u., ulnare; C., distal carpals united to carpo-metacarpus; CC., the whole carpal region; MC.I., metacarpal of the thumb; I., phalanx of the thumb; MC.II., second metacarpus; II., second digit; MC.III., third metacarpus; III., third digit. F., femur; T.T., tibio-tarsus; Fi., fibula; Pt., proximal tarsals united to lower end of tibia; dt., distal tarsals nited to upper end of tarso-metatarsus (T.MT.); T., entire tarsal region; MT.I., first metatarsal, free; I.-IV., toes." -Thomson, 1916

Bird Limbs

"Fore-limb and hind-limb compared. H., Humerus; R., radius; U., ulna; r., radiale; u., ulnare; C., distal…

The stomach of a grain-eating bird, which has a gizzard that functions to crush the seeds to pieces since birds have no teeth to crush their food. It has on its inside two hard surfaces which rub and press against each other by muscles to grind food. At <em>b</em> is the gizzard cut open, showing two hard grinding surfaces, and at <em> a </em> above is the part from which oozes the gastric juice.

Stomach of a Bird

The stomach of a grain-eating bird, which has a gizzard that functions to crush the seeds to pieces…

"Blood corpuscles (amphibian). c, colored corpuscles, flatwise and in profile; l, colorless corpuscles (leucocytes)." -Galloway, 1915

Blood Corpuscles

"Blood corpuscles (amphibian). c, colored corpuscles, flatwise and in profile; l, colorless corpuscles…

Diagrams of the body layers and cavities in A, coelenterates; B, flatworms; C, annelids; D, vertebrates. Labels: G, gastric cavity; g, cavity of the gonad; a, primary body cavity (blastocoele) filled with branched cells (mesenchyme); c, secondary body cavity (coelom); d, dorsal mesentery; m, mesenchyme filling space of original primary body cavity; n, nerve tube.

Body Layers and Cavities

Diagrams of the body layers and cavities in A, coelenterates; B, flatworms; C, annelids; D, vertebrates.…

"Bony Tissue. A, portion of cross-section of a bone, the upper portion of the figure representing the outer surface of the bone, just beneath the periosteum. The open spaces, h, are Haversian canals; l, lacunae, occupied in life by bone cells. The minute canals through the bone connecting the lacunae are canaliculi. B, a portion of one Haversian system much magnified. h, Haversian anal, containing arter (a), vein (v), lymphatic spaces, nutritive cells; c, canaliculi; l, lacunae; la, plae of bone intercellular substance." -Galloway, 1915

Bony Tissue

"Bony Tissue. A, portion of cross-section of a bone, the upper portion of the figure representing the…

In birds the hemispheres are not united as in humans; the cerebellum is proportionately larger than the medulla oblongata, and the comparative weight of the brain to the body is less than in mammals. Labels: 1, Cerebrum. 2, Optic ganglion. 3, Cerebellum. 4, Medulla oblongata.

Brain of a Bird

In birds the hemispheres are not united as in humans; the cerebellum is proportionately larger than…

Brain of the Orangoutang, showing arrangement of the convolutions. Sy, fissure of Sylvius; R, fissure of Rolando; E P, external perpendicular fissure; Olf, olfactory lobe; Cb, cerebellum; PV, pons Varolii; MO, medulla oblongata. As contrasted with the human brain, the frontal lobe is short and small relatively, the fissure of Sylvius is oblique, the temporo-sphenoidal lobe very prominent, and the external perpendicular fissure very well marked.

Brain of the Orangutan

Brain of the Orangoutang, showing arrangement of the convolutions. Sy, fissure of Sylvius; R, fissure…

Diagrams of the vertebrate brain. A, first stage, wit three brain vesicles; B, second stage; four brain vesicles; C, D, side view and sagittal section of fully formed brain without cerebral hemisphere.

Brain, Vertebrate

Diagrams of the vertebrate brain. A, first stage, wit three brain vesicles; B, second stage; four brain…

Diagrams of the vertebrate brain. E, H, transverse sections of the brain at different levels. E, the cerebrum; F, of the 'tween brain'; G, of the midbrain; H, of the hindbrain; I, J, side view and sagittal section of a brain with cerebral hemispheres.

Brain, Vertebrate

Diagrams of the vertebrate brain. E, H, transverse sections of the brain at different levels. E, the…

Dorsal view of vertebrate brain with the cavities of the right side exposed.

Brain, Vertebrate

Dorsal view of vertebrate brain with the cavities of the right side exposed.

"Vertebral column and pelvic girdle of bull-frog. t.p., Transvers processes of sacral vertebra; Il., ilium; U., urostyle; Fe., femur; Isch., ischiac region." -Thomson, 1916

Bullfrog Vertebrae

"Vertebral column and pelvic girdle of bull-frog. t.p., Transvers processes of sacral vertebra; Il.,…

A small portion of the capillary network as seen in the frog's web when magnified about 25 diameters. Labels: a, a small artery feeding the capillaries; v, v, small veins carrying blood back from the latter.

Capillary Network

A small portion of the capillary network as seen in the frog's web when magnified about 25 diameters.…

A small portion of the capillary network as seen in the frog's web when magnified about 25 diameters. Labels: a, a small artery feeding the capillaries; v, v, small veins carrying blood back from the latter.

Capillary Network

A small portion of the capillary network as seen in the frog's web when magnified about 25 diameters.…

"Diagram showing the ear and related parts in a young cat. P., Pinna; Sq., squamosal: E.A.M., external auditory meatus; T., tympanum; M., malleus; I., incus; St., stapes abutting onforamen ovale; B., bulla of tympanic bone; Se., a septum in the bulla; E.T., eustachian tube leading from the tymmpanic cavity to the back of the mouth; B.O., basi-occipital; C., cochlea; S., sacculus; U., utriculus; D.E., ductus endolymphaticus; N., auditory nerve; S.C., semi-circular canal; PE., periotic bone." -Thomson, 1916

Cat Ear

"Diagram showing the ear and related parts in a young cat. P., Pinna; Sq., squamosal: E.A.M., external…

"Origin of lungs, liver, and pancreas in the chick. The mesoderm is shaded; the endoderm dark. lg., One of the lungs; St., stomach; l., liver; p., pancreas." -Thomson, 1916

Chick Development

"Origin of lungs, liver, and pancreas in the chick. The mesoderm is shaded; the endoderm dark. lg.,…

Circulation in frog's foot under a microscope. Labels: A, walls of capillaries; B, tissue of web lying between the capillaries; C, cells of epidermis covering web (these are only shown in the right-hand and lower part of the field; in the other parts of the field the focus of the microscope lies below the epidermis); D, nuclei of these epidermic cells; E, pigment cells contracted, not partially expanded; F, red blood corpuscle (oval in the frog) passing along capillary -- nucleus not visible; G, another corpuscle squeezing its way through a capillary, the canal of which is smaller than its own transverse diameter; H, another bending as it slides round a corner; K, corpuscle in capillary seen through the epidermis; I, white blood corpuscle.

Circulation in a Frog's Foot

Circulation in frog's foot under a microscope. Labels: A, walls of capillaries; B, tissue of web lying…

Circulation in the web of a Frog's foot.

Circulation in the Web of a Frog's Foot

Circulation in the web of a Frog's foot.

"The nervous system of the Clam,&mdash;from the dorsal aspect. a, anterior; o, mouth; c.g., cerebral ganglia (brain); p.g., pedal ganglia; v.g., visceral ganglia." -Galloway, 1915

Clam Nervous System

"The nervous system of the Clam,—from the dorsal aspect. a, anterior; o, mouth; c.g., cerebral…

"Leg of cockroach. c., Broad expanded coxa; tr., trochanter; f., femur; ti., tibia; ta., six-jointed tarsus with terminal claws and adhesive cushions." -Thomson, 1916

Cockroach Leg

"Leg of cockroach. c., Broad expanded coxa; tr., trochanter; f., femur; ti., tibia; ta., six-jointed…

"Periplaneta. General view of the nervous system. abd. 6, sixth abdominal ganglion; ant, antennary nerve; br, brain; conn, oesophageal connective; inf, sub-oesophageal ganglion; opt, optic nerve; thor. 1, thor. 2, thor. 3, first, second, and third thoracic ganglia." -Parker, 1900

Cockroach Nervous System

"Periplaneta. General view of the nervous system. abd. 6, sixth abdominal ganglion; ant, antennary nerve;…

"Pectoral girdle and fin of cod. fr., Fin-rays; b.o., brachial ossicles; cor., coracoid; sc., scapula; cl., clavicle; p.cl., post-clavicle; s.cl., supra-clavicle; p.t., post-temporal." -Thomson, 1916

Cod Fin

"Pectoral girdle and fin of cod. fr., Fin-rays; b.o., brachial ossicles; cor., coracoid; sc., scapula;…

1, Epyornis; 2, Ostrich; 3, Cassoway; 4, Wild Goose; 5, hen; 6, Pigeon; 7, Humming-bird; 8, Eagle; 9, Vulture; 10, Penguin; 11, Crocodile; 12, Python; 13, Fresh-water Tortoise; 14, Boa of St. Lucia; 15, Tortoise; 16, Ophidan; 17, Dog-fish; 18, Ray-fish. The figure in the background without a number represents the egg of the Moa (extinct).

Comparative view of the size of the eggs of different animals

1, Epyornis; 2, Ostrich; 3, Cassoway; 4, Wild Goose; 5, hen; 6, Pigeon; 7, Humming-bird; 8, Eagle; 9,…

"Entire skeleton of condor, showing the relative positions of the chief bones." -Thomson, 1916

Condor Skeleton

"Entire skeleton of condor, showing the relative positions of the chief bones." -Thomson, 1916

"Cellular Connective Tissue, showing large vacuoles. v, in the protoplasm." -Galloway, 1915

Connective Tissue

"Cellular Connective Tissue, showing large vacuoles. v, in the protoplasm." -Galloway, 1915

A magnified view of corpuscles of human blood compared to animal blood. Labels: A, corpuscles of human blood; B, corpuscles in the blood of an animal (a non-mammal).

Corpuscles of Human and Animal Blood

A magnified view of corpuscles of human blood compared to animal blood. Labels: A, corpuscles of human…

In mammals the muscles in their general plain resemble those of humans. The superficial muscles of a cow are diagramed. Labels: 1, Occipito-Frontalis. 2, Orbicularis Palpaebrarum. 3, Masseter. 5, Sterno-cleido-Mastoid. 6, Trapezius. 7, Latissimus Dorsi. 8, Pectoralis. 9, 10, External and Internal oblique muscles. 11, Opening of the mammary artery and vein (milk vein). 12, Gluteii. 13, Rectus Femoris muscle.

The Superficial Muscles of a Cow

In mammals the muscles in their general plain resemble those of humans. The superficial muscles of a…

"Section through cephalothorax of a crab. H., Heart; Te., extension of the tergum; ST., sternum; PL., pleuron; T., tendons; 1st W.L., insertion of first walking leg; Br., gill in gill-chamber; g., gut; d.a., descending artery; A., afferent branchial; E., efferent branchial." -Thomson, 1916

Crab Cephalothorax

"Section through cephalothorax of a crab. H., Heart; Te., extension of the tergum; ST., sternum; PL.,…

"Nervous system of Astacus fluviatilis. bg, sub-oesphageal ganglion; cs, commissural ganglion; g, brain; s, visceral nerve; sc, oesophageal connective; y, post-oesophageal commissure; IV-VIII, thoracic ganglia; 1-6, abdominal ganglia." -Parker, 1900

Crayfish Nervous System

"Nervous system of Astacus fluviatilis. bg, sub-oesphageal ganglion; cs, commissural ganglion; g, brain;…

"Transverse section of thorax of crayfish, diagrammatic. abm, ventral abdominal muscles; bf, leg; bm, ventral nerve-cord; d, intestine; dbm, dorsal muscles of abdomen; ep, wall of thorax; h, heart; k, gills; kd, gill-cover; l, liver; ov, ovary; pc. pericardial sinus; sa. sn, sternal artery; vs, ventral sinus. The arrow shows the direction of the blood-current." -Parker, 1900

Crayfish Thorax

"Transverse section of thorax of crayfish, diagrammatic. abm, ventral abdominal muscles; bf, leg; bm,…

"Pectoral girdle of crocodile. sc., Scapula; glc., glenoid cavity; co., coracoid; c.f., coracoid foramen; i.cl., episternum." -Thomson, 1916

Crocodile Pectoral Girdle

"Pectoral girdle of crocodile. sc., Scapula; glc., glenoid cavity; co., coracoid; c.f., coracoid foramen;…

"Half of the pelvic girdle of a young crocodile. Il., Ilium; a.f., acetabulum; Is., ischium; P., pubis or epipubis." -Thomson, 1916

Crocodile Pelvic Girdle

"Half of the pelvic girdle of a young crocodile. Il., Ilium; a.f., acetabulum; Is., ischium; P., pubis…

"Skeleton of crocodile. C, causal region; D, thoracic region of spinal column; F, fibula; Fe, femur; H, humerus; I, ischium; L, lumbar region; R, radius; Ri, ribs; S, sacrum; Sc, scapula; Sta, abdominal ribs; T, tibia; U, ulna." -Parker, 1900

Crocodile Skeleton

"Skeleton of crocodile. C, causal region; D, thoracic region of spinal column; F, fibula; Fe, femur;…

"Cervical vertebra of crocodile. N.S., Neural spine; P.A., posterior articular process; A.A., anterior articular process; C.R., cervical rib; C., procoelous centrum." -Thomson, 1916

Crocodile Vertebra

"Cervical vertebra of crocodile. N.S., Neural spine; P.A., posterior articular process; A.A., anterior…

"Section of compound eye of Mysis vulgaris. m., Muscle of eye-stalk; 1-4 ganglionic swellings in the course of the optic nerve; n., the nerve fibrils passing up to the retinulae; rh., the rhabdoms; re., elements of retinulae; p., band of pigment; c., crystalline cones; co., the corneal facets with the subjacent nuclei." -Thomson, 1916

Crustacean Compound Eye

"Section of compound eye of Mysis vulgaris. m., Muscle of eye-stalk; 1-4 ganglionic swellings in the…

"Diagram of circulatory and excretory systems in a Decapod-like Sepia. 1, Gill; 2, renal sac; 3, afferent branchial vessel; 4, branchial heart; 5, abdominal vein; 6, heart; 7, viscero-pericardial sac (body cavity); 8, genital organ; 9, posterior aorta; 10, "auricle"; 11, glandular appendix of branchial heart; 12, renal appendices of branchial vein; 13, external aperure of kidney; 14, vena cava; 15, anterior aorta; 16, bifurcation of vena cava; 17, reno-pericardial aperture." -Thomson, 1916

Cuttlefish Circulatory and Excretory Systems

"Diagram of circulatory and excretory systems in a Decapod-like Sepia. 1, Gill; 2, renal sac; 3, afferent…

"Sepia officinalis, enteric canal. a, anus; b. d, one of the bile ducts; b. m, buccal mass; c, caecum; i, ink-sac; i. d, ink-duct; j, jaws; l, l, liver lobes; oe, oesophagus; p, pancreatic appendages1; r, rectum; s. g, salivary glands; st, stomach." -Parker, 1900

Cuttlefish Enteric Canal

"Sepia officinalis, enteric canal. a, anus; b. d, one of the bile ducts; b. m, buccal mass; c, caecum;…

"Sepia officinalis, jaws. A, in situ; B, removed and slightly enlarged." -Parker, 1900

Cuttlefish Jaws

"Sepia officinalis, jaws. A, in situ; B, removed and slightly enlarged." -Parker, 1900

Vertical transverse section of the dental sac and pulp of a kitten. Labels: a, dental papilla or pulp; b, the cap of dentine formed upon the summit; c, its covering of enamel; d, inner layer of epithelium of the enamel organ; e, gelatinous tissue; f, outer epithelial layer of the enamel organ; g, inner layer, and h, outer layer of dental sac.

Dental Sac and Pulp

Vertical transverse section of the dental sac and pulp of a kitten. Labels: a, dental papilla or pulp;…

Part of section of developing tooth of a young rat, showing the mode of deposition of the dentine. Labels: a, outer layer of fully formed dentine; b, uncalcified matrix with one or two nodules of calcareous matter near the calcified parts; c, odontoblasts sending processes into the dentine; d, pulp; e, fusiform or wedge-shape cells found between odontoblasts; f, stellate cells of pulp in fibrous connective tissue. The section is stained in carmine, which colors the uncalcified matrix, but not the calcified part.

Deposition of Dentine

Part of section of developing tooth of a young rat, showing the mode of deposition of the dentine. Labels:…

"This is the name applied in anatomy to designate the transverse muscle which, in man and the mammalia generally, separates the cavity of the thorax or chest from that of the abdomen or belly." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Diaphragm

"This is the name applied in anatomy to designate the transverse muscle which, in man and the mammalia…

"This is the name applied in anatomy to designate the transverse muscle which, in man and the mammalia generally, separates the cavity of the thorax or chest from that of the abdomen or belly." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Diaphragm

"This is the name applied in anatomy to designate the transverse muscle which, in man and the mammalia…

"Lower surface of dog's skull. o.c., Occipital condyle; B.O., basioccipital; T., tympanic bulla; m.c., postglenoid process behind fossa for condyle of mandible; B.S., basisphenoid; P.S., base of presphenoid; V., vomer; M.2, second molar; M.1, first molar; Pm. 1-4, premolars, the 4th the large carnassial; c., canine; I.1-3, incisors; Pmx., premaxilla; mx., maxilla; Pal., palatine; J., jugal; A.S., alisphenoid; Pt., pterygoid; Sq., squamosal (the reference line points to the glenoid fossa)." -Thomson, 1916

Dog Skull

"Lower surface of dog's skull. o.c., Occipital condyle; B.O., basioccipital; T., tympanic bulla; m.c.,…

"Stomach of Dog (A)...c, cardiac portion; p, pyloric portion; o, esophagus; i, intestine." -Galloway, 1915

Dog Stomach

"Stomach of Dog (A)...c, cardiac portion; p, pyloric portion; o, esophagus; i, intestine." -Galloway,…

"Wing of dove. h., Humerus; s.f., secondary feathers; r., radius; u., ulna; c., carpals; mc., carpo-metacarpus; p.f., primary feathers." -Thomson, 1916

Dove Wing

"Wing of dove. h., Humerus; s.f., secondary feathers; r., radius; u., ulna; c., carpals; mc., carpo-metacarpus;…

"Bones of hind-limb of eagle. f., Femur; t.t., tibio-tarsus; fb., fibula; a., ankle-joint; m.t., tarso-metatarsus; m.t'., first metatarsal (free)." -Thomson, 1916

Eagle Hind-Limb

"Bones of hind-limb of eagle. f., Femur; t.t., tibio-tarsus; fb., fibula; a., ankle-joint; m.t., tarso-metatarsus;…

"Reproductive organs of earthworm. N., Nerve cord; T., anterior testes; S., sacs of setae; R.S., receptacula seminis; s.f., seminal funnels; v.d., vas deferens; ovd., oviduct; ov., ovary; sv., seminal vesicles cut open; VIII.-XV., segmens" -Thomson, 1916

Earthworm Reproductive Organs

"Reproductive organs of earthworm. N., Nerve cord; T., anterior testes; S., sacs of setae; R.S., receptacula…

"Pectoral girdle of Echidna. sc., Scapula; cl., clavicle; i.cl., prosternum or "interclavicle"; co., coracoid or metacoracoid; e.co., procoracoid or precoracoid; st., mesosternum." -Thomson, 1916

Echidna Pectoral Girdle

"Pectoral girdle of Echidna. sc., Scapula; cl., clavicle; i.cl., prosternum or "interclavicle"; co.,…

"Pelvis of Echidna. S., Sacrum; Ep., epipubic bones; Ac., acetabulum; o.f., obturator foramen between ischium and pubis (p.)." -Thomson, 1916

Echidna Pelvis

"Pelvis of Echidna. S., Sacrum; Ep., epipubic bones; Ac., acetabulum; o.f., obturator foramen between…

The giant elk ranged from Ireland to the borders of Italy. The Irish Elk or Giant Deer was a species of Megaloceros and one of the largest deer that ever lived. The name "Giant Deer" is preferred as it is not related to either of the living species of elk. The Skeleton of Extinct Giant Elk (Megacerous hibernicus) of Ireland, compared with the skeleton of man.

Extinct Giant Elk

The giant elk ranged from Ireland to the borders of Italy. The Irish Elk or Giant Deer was a species…

"Development of excretory system of vertebrate. The primitive segments are not separated off from the lateral plate, and the pronephros (pn.) is seen arising from the lower part of the primitive segment.n.c., nerve cord; nch., notochord; pn., pronephros; g., gut; p.s., primitive segment; mes., mesonephric tubule; pn.d., pronephric duct; b.c., body cavity; ao., aorta; siv., sub-intestinal vein, with vessel to the aorta." -Thomson, 1916

Excretory System Stage 1

"Development of excretory system of vertebrate. The primitive segments are not separated off from the…

"Development of excretory system of vertebrate. The pronephros is completely separated off from the primitive segment and lateral plate.n.c., nerve cord; nch., notochord; pn., pronephros; g., gut; p.s., primitive segment; mes., mesonephric tubule; pn.d., pronephric duct; b.c., body cavity; ao., aorta; siv., sub-intestinal vein, with vessel to the aorta." -Thomson, 1916

Excretory System Stage 2

"Development of excretory system of vertebrate. The pronephros is completely separated off from the…