The transversalis, rectus, and pyramidalis muscles.

Muscles of the Abdomen

The transversalis, rectus, and pyramidalis muscles.

"Transverse section of an Alcyonarian zooid. mm, Mesenteries; mb, muscle banners; sc, sulcus; st, stomodaeum." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Alcyonarian

"Transverse section of an Alcyonarian zooid. mm, Mesenteries; mb, muscle banners; sc, sulcus; st, stomodaeum."…

"abc, deltoid muscle; d, coraco branchfalls muacle; r, r, triceps; e, i, extensors of wrist and long supinator of the hand; km, flexor of fingers and radial and ulnar sides of the wrist, and l, palm of the hand, or palmaris longus; p, palmaris brevis; q, palmar fascia; o, biceps." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Arm Muscles

"abc, deltoid muscle; d, coraco branchfalls muacle; r, r, triceps; e, i, extensors of wrist and long…

Shows the muscles and tendons of the arm.

Muscle structure of the arm

Shows the muscles and tendons of the arm.

"Muscles on the front of the arm. Note the while cords, the tendons at the wrist." —Davison, 1910

Muscles of the arm

"Muscles on the front of the arm. Note the while cords, the tendons at the wrist." —Davison, 1910

<em>L.A.</em>, left auricle; <em>R.A.</em>, right auricle; <em>A</em>, opening of the inferior vena cava; <em>B</em>, superior vena cava; <em>C</em>, cardiac vein of right auricle laid open; <em>D</em>, left pulmonary veins; <em>E</em>, eight pulmonary veins; <em>F</em>, muscular fibers surrounding the openings between the left auricle and left ventricle, and the right auricle and right ventricle; <em>G, H, K,</em> and <em>L</em>, muscular fibers surrounding the great veins of the heart." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Muscular fibers of the auricle

L.A., left auricle; R.A., right auricle; A, opening of the inferior vena…

"Some of the Larger Muscles on the Back of the Shoulder and the Arm." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Muscles of the back and shoulder

"Some of the Larger Muscles on the Back of the Shoulder and the Arm." — Blaisedell, 1904

The muscles of the back forearm. 1, biceps; 2, brachialis internus; 3, triceps; 4, pronator radii teres; 5, flexor carpi radialis; 6, palmaris longus; 7, flexor sublimus digitorum; 8, flexor carpi ulnaris; 9, palmar fascia; 10, palmaris brevis; 11, abductor pollicis; 12, flexor brevis pollicis; 13, supinator longus; 14, extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis.

Back Forearm Muscles

The muscles of the back forearm. 1, biceps; 2, brachialis internus; 3, triceps; 4, pronator radii teres;…

Muscles of the back. 1, trapezius; 2, its origin; 3, spine of scapula; 4, latissimus dorsi; 5, delltoid; 6, infra-spinatus; 7, external oblique; 8, gluteus medius; 9, gluteus maximus; 10, levator scapulae; 11, rhomboideus minor; 12, rhomboideus major; 13, splenius capitus; 14, splenius colli; 15, origin latissimus dorsi; 16, serratus inferior posticus; 17, supra-rpinatus; 18, infra-pinatus; 19, teres minor; 20, teres major; 21, long head triceps; 22, serratus major anticus; 23, internal oblique.

Back Muscles

Muscles of the back. 1, trapezius; 2, its origin; 3, spine of scapula; 4, latissimus dorsi; 5, delltoid;…

Second layer of muscles of the back. Labels: 1, trapezius; 2, a portion of the ten dinous ellipse formed by the trapezius on both sides; 3, spine of scapula; 4, latissimus dorsi; 5, deltoid; 6, infra-spinatus and teres minor; 7, external oblique; 8, gluteus medius; 9, gluteus magnus; 10, levator scapulae; 11, rhomboideus minor; 12, rhomboideus major; 13, splenius capitis; 14, splenius colli; 15, portion of origin of latissimus dorsi; 16, serratus inferior posticus; 17, supra-spinatus; 18, infra-spinatus; 19, teres minor; 20, teres major; 21, long head of triceps extensor cubiti; 22, serratus major anticus; 23, internal oblique.

Muscles of the Back

Second layer of muscles of the back. Labels: 1, trapezius; 2, a portion of the ten dinous ellipse formed…

A diagram showing the muscular cycle form by the biceps or flexor muscle, and the triceps or extensor muscle of the human arm.

Muscular Cycle of the Biceps

A diagram showing the muscular cycle form by the biceps or flexor muscle, and the triceps or extensor…

Back view of muscles of the calf.

Back View of the Muscles of the Calf

Back view of muscles of the calf.

A conch shell.

Chank

A conch shell.

A frontal view of the chest muscles. 1, sterno-hyoid; 2, sterno-mastoid; 3, sterno-thyroid; 4, sterno-mastoid; 5, trapezius; 6, clavicle; 7, origin pectoralis major; 8, deltoid; 9, lower edge pectoralis major; 10, middle pectoralis major; 11, fibres external oblique; 12, biceps; 13, teres major; 14, serratus major anticus; 15, external oblique interlocking with serratus major.

Chest Muscles

A frontal view of the chest muscles. 1, sterno-hyoid; 2, sterno-mastoid; 3, sterno-thyroid; 4, sterno-mastoid;…

In mammals the muscles in their general plain resemble those of humans. The superficial muscles of a cow are diagramed. Labels: 1, Occipito-Frontalis. 2, Orbicularis Palpaebrarum. 3, Masseter. 5, Sterno-cleido-Mastoid. 6, Trapezius. 7, Latissimus Dorsi. 8, Pectoralis. 9, 10, External and Internal oblique muscles. 11, Opening of the mammary artery and vein (milk vein). 12, Gluteii. 13, Rectus Femoris muscle.

The Superficial Muscles of a Cow

In mammals the muscles in their general plain resemble those of humans. The superficial muscles of a…

"This is the name applied in anatomy to designate the transverse muscle which, in man and the mammalia generally, separates the cavity of the thorax or chest from that of the abdomen or belly." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Diaphragm

"This is the name applied in anatomy to designate the transverse muscle which, in man and the mammalia…

"This is the name applied in anatomy to designate the transverse muscle which, in man and the mammalia generally, separates the cavity of the thorax or chest from that of the abdomen or belly." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Diaphragm

"This is the name applied in anatomy to designate the transverse muscle which, in man and the mammalia…

"The superficial veins in front of the elbow-joint. B', tendon of biceps muscle; Bi, brachialis internus muscle; Pt, pronator teres muscle; 1, median nerve; 2, 3, 4, nerve-branches to the skin; B, brachial artery, with its small accompanying veins; cep, cephalic vein; bas, basilic vein; m', median vein; *, junction of a deep-lying vein with the cephalic." &mdash;Martin, 1917

Elbow-Joint

"The superficial veins in front of the elbow-joint. B', tendon of biceps muscle; Bi, brachialis internus…

"Next in order is the aqueous humor, b, e, in the middle of which is the iris, d, c. Behind the pupil we have the crystalline lens, f, and then the vitreous humor, h, filling all the interior of the ball of the eye. m indicates the retina, which is an expansion of the optic nerve, n. k is the choroid coat, a membrane interposed between the retina and the sclerotic coat; it terminates in form in a series of folds or filaments, g, called the ciliary ligament or process." &mdash;Wells, 1857

Eye

"Next in order is the aqueous humor, b, e, in the middle of which is the iris, d, c. Behind the pupil…

The relative position and attachment of the muscles of the left eyeball.

Eye Muscles

The relative position and attachment of the muscles of the left eyeball.

"The external bones of the temple are supposed to be removed in order to render visible the muscular arrangements. The muscle, 1, raises the eye-lid, and is constantly in action while we are awake. During sleep, the muscle being in repose and relaxed, the eye-lid falls and protects the eye from the action of light. The muscle, 4, turns the eye upwards; 5, downwards; 6, outwards; and a corresponding one on the inside, not seen in the figure, turns it inwards. No. 2 and 10 turn the eye round its axis. No. 11 is the great optic nerve, which conveys the sensation to the brain. If this nerve were cut, notwithstanding the eye might be in other respects perfect, the sense of sight would be destroyed." &mdash;Wells, 1857

Eye Muscles

"The external bones of the temple are supposed to be removed in order to render visible the muscular…

"Diagram showing the Change in the Lens during Accomadation. On the right the lens is arranged for distant vision, the cilliary muscle is relaxed, and the ligament <em>D</em> is tense, so flattening by its compression the front of the lens <em>C</em>, on the left the muscle <em>A</em> is acting, and this relaxes the ligament and allows the lens <em>B</em> to become more convex, and so fitted for the vision of near objects." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Lens of the eye

"Diagram showing the Change in the Lens during Accomadation. On the right the lens is arranged for distant…

"The eye is moved about by six muscles. The back ends of these muscles are attached to the eye sockets. The front ends are attached to the ball of the eye." &mdash; Ritchie, 1918

Muscles of the eyes

"The eye is moved about by six muscles. The back ends of these muscles are attached to the eye sockets.…

Muscles of the face, jaw and neck. 1, longus colli; 2, rapezius; 3, sterno-hyoid; 4, sterno-mastoid; 5, erico-thyroid; 6, trapezius; 7, constrictor of pharynx; 8, sterno-mastoid; 9, digastric; 10, attrahens aurem; 11, mylo-hyoid; 12, masseter; 13, depressor oof lower lip; 15, orbicularis oris; 17, levator of upper lip; 19, levator of angle of mouth; 21, orbicularis palpebrarum.

Facial Muscles

Muscles of the face, jaw and neck. 1, longus colli; 2, rapezius; 3, sterno-hyoid; 4, sterno-mastoid;…

In fish the chief masses of the muscular system are disposed on each side of the trunk in a series of plates or flakes corresponding in number to the vertebrae. Labels: a,b,c, and 1,2,3, The zigzag arrangement of the flakes.

The Muscles of a Fish

In fish the chief masses of the muscular system are disposed on each side of the trunk in a series of…

"Tendons on the Top of the Right Foot." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Tendons of the foot

"Tendons on the Top of the Right Foot." — Blaisedell, 1904

"Galvani found that whenever the nerves of a frog's leg were touched by one metal and the muscles by another, convulsions took place on bringing the two different metals in contact." &mdash;Wells, 1857

Frog Experiment

"Galvani found that whenever the nerves of a frog's leg were touched by one metal and the muscles by…

The muscles of the back forearm. 1, biceps; 2, brachialis internus; 3, biceps; 4, supinator longus; 5, extensor carpl radialis longior; 6, extensor carpi radialis brevior; 7, insertion of these mscles; 8, extensor communis digitorum; 9, extensor communis digitorum; 10, extensor carpi ulnaris; 11, anconeus; 12, flexor carpi ulnaris; 13, extensor minor pollicis; 14, extensor major pollicis; 15, posterior annular ligament.

Front Forearm Muscles

The muscles of the back forearm. 1, biceps; 2, brachialis internus; 3, biceps; 4, supinator longus;…

The wing muscles of a goose.

Goose Wing

The wing muscles of a goose.

"Tendons on the Back of the Left Hand" &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Tendons of the hand

"Tendons on the Back of the Left Hand" — Blaisedell, 1904

In birds the muscles system is remarkable for their marked line of attachment to their tendons. Labels: 1, Occipito-Frontalis. 2, Orbicularis Palpaebrarum. 3, Temporal. 4, Masseter. 5, Sterno-cleido-Mastoid. 6, Trapezius. 7, Latissimus Dorsi. 8, Pectoralis. 9, Deltoid. 10, Biceps. 11, Triceps. 12, Gluteii. 13, Levator Caudae. 14, Rectus Femoris. 15, Gastrocnemius muscle.

The Superficial Muscles of a Hawk

In birds the muscles system is remarkable for their marked line of attachment to their tendons. Labels:…

"Skull of Hystrix Eristata. t, temporal muscle; m, masseter. m', portion of masseter transmitted through the infra-orbital foramen, the superior maxillary nerve passing outwards between it and the maxillary bone." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Hystrix Eristata

"Skull of Hystrix Eristata. t, temporal muscle; m, masseter. m', portion of masseter transmitted through…

"<em>The involuntary muscles</em> consist of ribbon-shaped bands which surround hollow tubes or cavities in the body. They are never attached to bony levers nor are they furnished with tendons, as are the voluntary muscles." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Spindle cell of involuntary muscle

"The involuntary muscles consist of ribbon-shaped bands which surround hollow tubes or cavities…

The muscle thickens when it shortens to draw up the heel.

Leg Muscle

The muscle thickens when it shortens to draw up the heel.

The muscles of the front of the leg. 1, tendon of quadriceps; 2, spine tibia; 3, tibialis anticus; 4, extensor communis digitorum; 5, extensor proprius pollicis; 6, peroneus tertius; 7, peroneus longus; 8, peroneus brevis; 9, soleus; 10, gastrocnemius; 11, extensor brevis digitorum.

Leg Muscles

The muscles of the front of the leg. 1, tendon of quadriceps; 2, spine tibia; 3, tibialis anticus; 4,…

"Muscles of the leg showing how they pass into tendons at the ankle." &mdash;Davison, 1910

Muscles of the leg

"Muscles of the leg showing how they pass into tendons at the ankle." —Davison, 1910

A cup and saucer limpet.

Limpet

A cup and saucer limpet.

"Anatomy of an Acephalous Mollusc (Mactra): s, stomach; ii, intestine; ag, anterior ganglions; pg, posterior ganglions; mn, muscles; a, anus; h, heart; l, liver; f, foot; sh, shell; ma, mantle; b, branchiae; t, tentacula; r, oral, or respiratory syphon; t, anal syphon." &mdash; Chambers, 1881

Mollusc Anatomy

"Anatomy of an Acephalous Mollusc (Mactra): s, stomach; ii, intestine; ag, anterior ganglions; pg, posterior…

Left valve of a mollusk of the Chamid&aelig' genus.

Mollusk

Left valve of a mollusk of the Chamidæ' genus.

Right valve of a mollusk of the Chamid&aelig' genus.

Mollusk

Right valve of a mollusk of the Chamidæ' genus.

"A muscle cell from the stomach." &mdash; Ritchie, 1918

Muscle cell

"A muscle cell from the stomach." — Ritchie, 1918

"Diagram illustrating the muscles (drawn in thick black lines) which pass before and behind the joints and by their balanced activity keep the joints rigid and the body erect." &mdash;Martin, 1917

Muscle Diagram

"Diagram illustrating the muscles (drawn in thick black lines) which pass before and behind the joints…

"Fine threads of fibers forming a muscle." &mdash;Davison, 1910

Muscle fibers

"Fine threads of fibers forming a muscle." —Davison, 1910

A small bit of muscle composed of five primary fasciculi (bundles). Labels: A, natural size; B, the same magnified, showing the secondary fasciculi of which the primary are composed.

Muscle Fibers

A small bit of muscle composed of five primary fasciculi (bundles). Labels: A, natural size; B, the…

A small piece of muscular fiber highly magnified. At a the fiber has been crushed and twisted so as to tear away its contents, while the tougher sarcolemma, elsewhere so closely applied to the rest as to be invisible, remains untorn and conspicuous.

Muscle Fibers

A small piece of muscular fiber highly magnified. At a the fiber has been crushed and twisted so as…

Muscle fibers from the heart showing the striations and the junctions of the cells, highly magnified.

Muscle Fibers

Muscle fibers from the heart showing the striations and the junctions of the cells, highly magnified.

"Plain muscle fibres. n, nucleus of muscle cell; p, undifferentiated cell protoplasm; p', the differentiated contractile portion of the cell." &mdash; Galloway

Muscle Fibres

"Plain muscle fibres. n, nucleus of muscle cell; p, undifferentiated cell protoplasm; p', the differentiated…

The upper bicep of the right arm. Included are the tendons, blood vessels, and its nerve.

Bicep Muscle

The upper bicep of the right arm. Included are the tendons, blood vessels, and its nerve.

A microscopic view of a muscle showing, at one end, the fibrillae; and at the other, the disk, or cells of the fiber.

Microscopic View of a Muscle

A microscopic view of a muscle showing, at one end, the fibrillae; and at the other, the disk, or cells…

Three sections of smooth muscle. M C is muscle cells and N is nucleus. Smooth muscles are slow to contract. They make up the wall of a bladder and blood vessels.

Smooth Muscle

Three sections of smooth muscle. M C is muscle cells and N is nucleus. Smooth muscles are slow to contract.…

Striped, or striated, muscle which quickly contracts causing the alternating black and white lines. It has very delicate fibers (M FL). It is stimulated by nerve fibers (N F), which divide into an endplate (N E) on the contracting surface. N are nuclei, which are a part of elongated cells that fused together to make the muscle. M stands for muscle and N, except for nuclei, stands for nerve.

Striated Muscle

Striped, or striated, muscle which quickly contracts causing the alternating black and white lines.…

Two portion of muscle; one of which, a, is covered with membrane; the other, b, is uncovered; c, the muscular fibers terminating in tendon.

Two Portions of Muscle

Two portion of muscle; one of which, a, is covered with membrane; the other, b, is uncovered; c, the…

"Principal Muscles on the Right, Certain Organs of the Chest and Abdomen, and the Larger Blood Vessels on the Left." — Blaisedell, 1904

Muscles and Blood Vessels

"Principal Muscles on the Right, Certain Organs of the Chest and Abdomen, and the Larger Blood Vessels…

Muscle of the body, back view: The fascia is left upon the left limbs, removed from the right.

Back View of the Muscles of the Body

Muscle of the body, back view: The fascia is left upon the left limbs, removed from the right.

Muscle of the body, front view: On the right half, the superficial muscles; left half, deep-seated muscles.

Front View of the Muscles of the Body

Muscle of the body, front view: On the right half, the superficial muscles; left half, deep-seated muscles.

A front view of the superficial muscles of the body. Labels: 1, The frontal swells of the occipito-frontalis. 2, The orbicularis palpebrarum. 3, The levator labii superioris alaeque nasi. 4, The zygomaticus major. 5, The zygomaticus minor. 6, The masseter. 7, The orbicularis oris. 8, The depressor labii inferioris. 9, The latysma myoides. 10, The deltoid. 11, The pectoralis major. 12, The latissimus dorsi. 13, The serratus major anticus. 14, The biceps flexor cubiti. 15, The triceps extensor cubiti. 16, The supinator radii longus. 17, The pronator radii teres. 18, The extensor carpi radialis longior. 19, The extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis. 20, The annular ligament. 21, The palmar fascia. 22, The obliquus externus abdominis. 26, The psoas magnus. 27, The abducter longus. 28, The sartorius. 29, The rectus femoris. 30, The vastus externus. 31, vastus internus. 32, The tendo patellae. 33, The gastrocnemius. 34, The tibialis anticus. 35, The tibia. 36, The tendons of the extensor communis.

Front View of the Superficial Muscles of the Body

A front view of the superficial muscles of the body. Labels: 1, The frontal swells of the occipito-frontalis.…

"The extensor muscles on the back of the forearm. Note the tendons at the wrist." &mdash;Davison, 1910

Muscles of the forearm

"The extensor muscles on the back of the forearm. Note the tendons at the wrist." —Davison, 1910

The muscles of the human body.

Muscles of the Human Body

The muscles of the human body.

Superficial and deep muscles of the trunk. The sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis major, anterior portion of deltoid, the external oblique, aponeurosis of the internal oblique, tensor fasciae latae, sartorius, rectus femoris, iliopsoas, pectineus, adductor longus and the gracilis muscles of the left side have been cut away to expose the underlying muscles. Anterior View.

Anterior View of the Muscles of the Trunk

Superficial and deep muscles of the trunk. The sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis major, anterior portion…

Superficial and deep muscles of the trunk. The latissimus dorsi and trapezius on the right side have been cut away to expose the underlying muscles. Posterior View.

Posterior View of the Muscles of the Trunk

Superficial and deep muscles of the trunk. The latissimus dorsi and trapezius on the right side have…