"The principal muscles are seen on the left, and superficial veins on the right." — Blaisedell, 1904

Principal Organs of the Thorax and Abdomen

"The principal muscles are seen on the left, and superficial veins on the right." — Blaisedell, 1904

"Diagram showing the capillary network of the air sacs and origin of the pulmonary veins.. <em>A</em>, small branch of pulmonary artery; <em>B</em>, twigs of pulmonary artery; <em>C</em>, capillary network around the walls of the air sacs; <em>D</em>, branches of network converging to form the veinlets of the pulmonary veins." — Blaisedell, 1904

Capillaries of the Air Sac

"Diagram showing the capillary network of the air sacs and origin of the pulmonary veins.. A,…

The arteries and veins of a section of the skin. A, arterial branches. B, capillary, or hair-like vessels, in which the large branches terminate. C, the venous trunk, collecting the blood from the capillaries.

The Arteries and Veins of a Section of the Skin

The arteries and veins of a section of the skin. A, arterial branches. B, capillary, or hair-like vessels,…

Transverse section through a small artery and vein. Labels: A, artery; V, vein; e, epithelial lining; m, middle muscular and elastic coat, thick in the artery, much thinner in the vein; a, outer coat of areolar tissue, magnified 350 diameters.

Diagram of an Artery and a Vein

Transverse section through a small artery and vein. Labels: A, artery; V, vein; e, epithelial lining;…

Relations of the artery, vein, and capillaries.

Relations of Artery, Vein, and Capillaries

Relations of the artery, vein, and capillaries.

<em>L.A.</em>, left auricle; <em>R.A.</em>, right auricle; <em>A</em>, opening of the inferior vena cava; <em>B</em>, superior vena cava; <em>C</em>, cardiac vein of right auricle laid open; <em>D</em>, left pulmonary veins; <em>E</em>, eight pulmonary veins; <em>F</em>, muscular fibers surrounding the openings between the left auricle and left ventricle, and the right auricle and right ventricle; <em>G, H, K,</em> and <em>L</em>, muscular fibers surrounding the great veins of the heart." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Muscular fibers of the auricle

L.A., left auricle; R.A., right auricle; A, opening of the inferior vena…

"The spinal column below the twelfth dorsal vertebra at <em>A</em> has been removed, as well as the various layers of the great muscles of the back. The two kidneys with the renal arteries and veins are plainly shown, in their normal positions. The relative positions of adjacent vessels and organs with their names printed upon them are also shown. <em>B</em>, portion of the diaphragm on the left side; <em>C</em>, receptaculum chyli; <em>D</em>, a part of the small intestine on the left side." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Vertical section of the back

"The spinal column below the twelfth dorsal vertebra at A has been removed, as well as the…

Diagram of the course of the blood. Labels: RA, right auricle; RV. right ventricles; LV and LA, left auricle and left ventricle; VCI and VCS, vena cava inferior and superior; Ao aorta; Lg, lungs; Al, alimentary canal; Th D, thoracic duct; Lct,lacteals; HA and HV, hepatic artery and vein.

Blood Flow Diagram

Diagram of the course of the blood. Labels: RA, right auricle; RV. right ventricles; LV and LA, left…

"Showing how the circulation of blood in the web of a frog's foot looks as seen under the microscope." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Circulation of blood

"Showing how the circulation of blood in the web of a frog's foot looks as seen under the microscope."…

"Arteries and their Branches at the Base of the Brain." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Blood vessels of the brain

"Arteries and their Branches at the Base of the Brain." — Blaisedell, 1904

"<em>R.A.</em>, right auricle; <em>L.A.</em>, left auricle; <em>R.V.</em>, right ventricle; <em>L.V.</em>, left ventricle; <em>P.A.</i., pulmonary artery; <em>A</em>, pulmonary artery and vein of right lung; <em>B</em>, pulmonary artery and vein of left lung; <em>C</em>, carotid artery to head, showing branch of left subclavian artery; <em>D</em>, portal vein; <em>F</em>, hepatic artery; <em>G</em>, superior vena cava, bringing blood from head and upper limbs to right auricle." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Diagram of the circulation of the blood

"R.A., right auricle; L.A., left auricle; R.V., right ventricle; L.V.,…

The human circulatory organs.

The Circulatory Organs

The human circulatory organs.

The circulatory organs. Labels: 1, The left auricle. 2, The right auricle. 3, The left ventricle. 4, The right ventricle. 5, 6, The aorta. 7, The femoral (leg) artery. 8, The branchial (arm) arteries. 9, carotid arteries. 10, The jugular veins. 11, The branchial veins. 12, The femoral veins. 13, 14, The vena cavas. 15, The pulmonary artery. 16, The right and left pulmonary arteries. 17, The pulmonary veins. 18, The lacteals. 19, The thoracic duct. 20, The absorbents of the upper extremities. 22, The small intestine.

The Circulatory Organs

The circulatory organs. Labels: 1, The left auricle. 2, The right auricle. 3, The left ventricle. 4,…

"Central organs of the circulaion, gills, and renal organs of Sepia officinalis. a, aorta; v, vena cava; v' visceral veins; c, systemic heart; d, dilatations of branchial veins on entering the heart; e, branchial hearts; b, branchiae; r, renal organs." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Cuttlefish Organs

"Central organs of the circulaion, gills, and renal organs of Sepia officinalis. a, aorta; v, vena cava;…

"The superficial veins in front of the elbow-joint. B', tendon of biceps muscle; Bi, brachialis internus muscle; Pt, pronator teres muscle; 1, median nerve; 2, 3, 4, nerve-branches to the skin; B, brachial artery, with its small accompanying veins; cep, cephalic vein; bas, basilic vein; m', median vein; *, junction of a deep-lying vein with the cephalic." &mdash;Martin, 1917

Elbow-Joint

"The superficial veins in front of the elbow-joint. B', tendon of biceps muscle; Bi, brachialis internus…

"Diagram to show the working parts of a gland. v and a are blood tubes with thin-walled branches around the parts of the gland c. These take material from the blood and, after changing it, send it to the mouth, stomach, or other places before the duct i." &mdash;Davison, 1910

Gland

"Diagram to show the working parts of a gland. v and a are blood tubes with thin-walled branches around…

Veins of the face and neck. Labels: 1, glosso-facial; A, its facial portion; 2, jugular; 3, occipial; 4, cervial portion of jugular; a, superior coronary; b, small labial branch; c, inferior coronary; a', common coronary trunk; d, angular vein of the eye; e, dorsal nasal; e', lateral nasal; f, alveolar; g, buccal; h, posterior auricular; i, superficial temporal; k, anterior auricular; l, subzygomatic; m, superior cerebral-cut; n, maxillo muscular; o, muscular, esophageal and tracheal twig.

Head and Neck of a Horse Showing Veins

Veins of the face and neck. Labels: 1, glosso-facial; A, its facial portion; 2, jugular; 3, occipial;…

1, The trachea or windpipe; 2 and 3, right and left common carotid arteries; 4 and 5, right and left sub clavian arteries; 6, innominate artery; 7 and 8, right and left innominate veins; 9, Superior vena cava; 10, arch of the aorta; 11, ascending aorta; 12, pulmonary artery; 13, right atrium and auricula; 14 and 15, right and left lung; 16, conus arteriosus; 17, right ventricle; 18, left ventricle.

Heart and Lungs

1, The trachea or windpipe; 2 and 3, right and left common carotid arteries; 4 and 5, right and left…

"<em>A</em>, superior vena cava; <em>B</em>, right auricle; <em>C</em>, right ventricle; <em>D</em> left ventricle; <em>E</em>, left auricle; <em>F</em> pulminary vein; <em>H</em>, pulminary artery; <em>K</em> aorta; <em>L</em>, right subclavian artery; <em>N</em>, left common carotid artery." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Anterior view of the heart

"A, superior vena cava; B, right auricle; C, right ventricle; D

"<em>A, B</em>, right pulmonary veins, <em>S</em>, openings of the left pulmonary veins; <em>E, D, C, aortic valves; <em>R</em>, aorta, <em>P</em>pulmonary artery, <em>O</em>, pulmonic valves, <em>H</em>, mitraal valve; <em>K</em>, columnae carneae, <em>M</em> right ventricular cavity." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Cavities of the heart

"A, B, right pulmonary veins, S, openings of the left pulmonary veins; E, D, C,

"<em>L.A.</em>, left auricle; <em>R.A.</em>, right auricle; <em>R.V.</em>, right ventricle; <em>A</em>, opening of the inferior vena cava; <em>B</em>, superior vena cava; <em>C</em>, right pulmonary veins; <em>D</em>, left pulmonary veins; <em>E</em>aorta; <em>F</em>, left branch of pulmonary artery; <em>G</em>, great cardiac vein; <em>H</em>middle cardiac vein. the cardiac lymphatics which follow the course of the cardiac veins are also shown." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Posterior view of the heart

"L.A., left auricle; R.A., right auricle; R.V., right ventricle; A,…

"<em>A</em>, a fold of peritoneum; <em>B</em>, lacteals and lymphatic glands; <em>C</em>, veins of intestines; <em>R.C.,</em>, receptacle of the chyle (receptaculum chyli); <em>P.V.</em>, portal vein; <em>H.V.</em>, hepatic veins; <em>S.V.C.</em>, superior vena cava; <em>R.A.</em>, right auricle of the heart; <em>I.V.C.</em>, inferior vena cava." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Intestinal absorption

"A, a fold of peritoneum; B, lacteals and lymphatic glands; C, veins of intestines;…

"Reticulated leaves are those the veins of which branch and ramify in all directions, forming a complete network."&mdash;Darby, 1855

Reticulated Vein Leaf

"Reticulated leaves are those the veins of which branch and ramify in all directions, forming a complete…

"Parallel-veined leaves are those in which the veins proceed from their origin to their termination without any subdivision; the veins being connected by minute, parallel, straight veinlets, passing perpendicularly from one to another."&mdash;Darby, 1855

Parallel-Veined Leaves

"Parallel-veined leaves are those in which the veins proceed from their origin to their termination…

"The Liver seen from Below and Behind. <em>A</em> and </em>B</em>, smaller lobes of the liver; <em>C</em>, portal vein; <em>D</em> hepatic artery; <em>E</em>, inferior vena cava; <em>F</em>, trunk of the left hepatic vein; <em>G</em>, hepatic vein." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Liver

"The Liver seen from Below and Behind. A and B, smaller lobes of the liver; C,…

"<em>A</em>, an air sac; <em>B</em>, an air sac cut open; <em>C</em>, capillary network over an air sac; <em>D</em>, branch of pulmonary artery; <em>E</em>, branch of pulmonary vein; <em>F</em>, bronchial tube." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Lobule of the lung

"A, an air sac; B, an air sac cut open; C, capillary network over an air…

"<em>L.A.</em>, left ventricle; <em>B</em>, right ventricle; <em>F</em>, pulmonary artery; <em>G</em>, aorta; <em>H</em>, arch of the aorta; <em>K</em>, innominate artery; <em>L</em>, right common carotid artery; <em>M</em>, right subclavian artery; <em>N</em>, thyroid cartilage forming upper portions of the larynx; <em>O</em>, trachea." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Lungs

"L.A., left ventricle; B, right ventricle; F, pulmonary artery; G,…

"<em>A</em>, division of left bronchus to upper lobe; <em>B</em>, left branch of the pulmonary artery; <em>C</em>, left bronchus; <em>D</em>, left superior pulmonary vein; <em>E</em>, left inferior pulmonary vein; <em>F</em>, left auricle; <em>K</em>, inferior vena cava; <em>L</em>; division of the right bronchus to lower lobe; <em>M</em>, right inferior pulmonary vein; <em>N</em>, right superior pulmonary vein, <em>O</em>, right branch of the pulmonary artery; <em>P</em>, division of right bronchus to upper lobe; <em>R</em>, left ventricle; <em>S</em>, right ventricle." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Lungs

"A, division of left bronchus to upper lobe; B, left branch of the pulmonary artery;…

"Relative Postion of the Lungs, the Heart, and Some of the Great Vessels belonging to the latter. <em>A</em>, left common carotid artery; <em>B</em>, external carotid artery; <em>C</em>, internal carotid artery; <em>D</em>, left jugular vein; <em>E</em>, sterno-cleido muscle; <em>F</em>, right innominate artery with branches to head and arm; <em>G</em>, left subclavian artery; <em>H</em>, great azygos vein; <em>K</em>, thoracic duct." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Lungs

"Relative Postion of the Lungs, the Heart, and Some of the Great Vessels belonging to the latter. A,…

"Showing the carotid artery and jugular vein on the right side, with some of their main branches; also some large nerve trunks." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Blood vessels of the neck

"Showing the carotid artery and jugular vein on the right side, with some of their main branches; also…

"The renal organs, viewed from behind. R, right kidney; A, aorta; Ar, right renal artery; Vc, inferior vena cava; Vr, right renal vein; U, right ureter; Vu, bladder; Ua, commencement of urethra." &mdash;Martin, 1917

Renal Organs

"The renal organs, viewed from behind. R, right kidney; A, aorta; Ar, right renal artery; Vc, inferior…

"In the figure on the left are seen the artery and vein of a villus. In the right figure are represented the central lacteal of the villus, with the plexus of lymph vessels at the base. The mucous, submucuous, muscular, and serous coats are indicated at the base of the right-hand figure.  The epithelium of each villus is well shown." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Transverse section of the small intestine

"In the figure on the left are seen the artery and vein of a villus. In the right figure are represented…

"Human Thoracic Duct and Azygous Veins. a, receptacle of the chyle; b, trunk of the thoracic duct, opening at c into root of left innominate vein at junction of f, left jugular, and g, left subclavian vein; e, right innominate vein; d, d, d, several thoracic and lumbar lymphatic glands; h, h, a short portion of the esophagus. Two azygous veins run parallel with and on each side of the duct, until the left crosses behind the duct to join the right. The structures represented rest nearly upon the back-bone." -Whitney, 1911

Thoracic Duct

"Human Thoracic Duct and Azygous Veins. a, receptacle of the chyle; b, trunk of the thoracic duct, opening…

The valves of the veins.

Valves of the Veins

The valves of the veins.

Diagram showing valves of veins. A, part of a vein laid open and spread out with two pairs of valves. B, longitudinal section of a vein, showing the apposition of the edges of the valves in their closed state. C, portion of a distended vein, exhibiting a swelling in the situation of a pair of valves.

Valves of Veins

Diagram showing valves of veins. A, part of a vein laid open and spread out with two pairs of valves.…

Valves of veins. A shows a vein cut open between the segments of two valves. B shows appearance of valves closed and open.

Valves of Veins

Valves of veins. A shows a vein cut open between the segments of two valves. B shows appearance of valves…

A, vein with valves open. B, vein with valves closed: stream of blood passing off by lateral channel.

Blood Flow in the Valves of Veins

A, vein with valves open. B, vein with valves closed: stream of blood passing off by lateral channel.

"<em>A</em>, part of a vein laid open, with two pairs of valves; <em>B</em>, longitudinal section of a vein, showing the valves closed." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Vein

"A, part of a vein laid open, with two pairs of valves; B, longitudinal section of…

A portion of vein.

Vein

A portion of vein.

Vein laid open, showing it's valves.

Vein and Valves

Vein laid open, showing it's valves.

Transverse section through the wall of a vein. Labels: A, tunica intima; B, tunica media; C, tunica externa.

Section Through Vein Wall

Transverse section through the wall of a vein. Labels: A, tunica intima; B, tunica media; C, tunica…

"The Internal, or Long Saphenous, Vein of the Left Leg." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Leg vein

"The Internal, or Long Saphenous, Vein of the Left Leg." — Blaisedell, 1904

Structure of a vein with valves. A, part of a vein, laid open, with two pairs of valves; B, longitudinal section of vein, showing valves closed.

Structure of a Vein

Structure of a vein with valves. A, part of a vein, laid open, with two pairs of valves; B, longitudinal…

This illustration shows veins that have formed within rocks.

Vein-form Condition

This illustration shows veins that have formed within rocks.

This illustration shows a network of thin veins that have formed with a rock.

Vein-form Condition

This illustration shows a network of thin veins that have formed with a rock.

This illustration shows two very irregular veins. a represents regular veins, whereas b shows an intersecting irregular vein.

Vein-form Condition

This illustration shows two very irregular veins. a represents regular veins, whereas b shows an intersecting…

This illustration shows two large veins, of irregular character that cross one another.

Vein-form Condition

This illustration shows two large veins, of irregular character that cross one another.

This illustration shows a large band of veins within rock.

Vein-form Condition

This illustration shows a large band of veins within rock.

This illustration shows a large band of veins within rock.

Vein-form Condition

This illustration shows a large band of veins within rock.

"Chief veins and arteries of the body. a, place of the heart; the veins are in black. On the right side of the pictures the veins just under the skin oare shown and on the other side the deep vessels near the bones.. b, vessels to the lungs." &mdash;Davison, 1910

Veins and arteries

"Chief veins and arteries of the body. a, place of the heart; the veins are in black. On the right side…

Chief veins and arteries of the body. Labels: a, place of the heart; the veins are in the back. On the right side of the picture the veins just under the skin are shown on the other side the deep vessels near the bones. b, vessels to the lungs.

Veins and Arteries of the Body

Chief veins and arteries of the body. Labels: a, place of the heart; the veins are in the back. On the…

Diagram illustrating the development of veins about the liver. B, dc, ducts of Cuvier, right and left; ca, right and left cardinal veins; o, left omphalo-mesenteric vein, almost shriveled up; u, u', umbilical veins, of which u', the right one has almost disappeared. Between the venae cardinales is seen the outline of the rudimentary liver with its venae hepaticae advehentes, and revehentes. D, ductus venosus; i', hepatic veins; P', venae advehentes; m, mesenteric veins.

Development of Veins in the Liver

Diagram illustrating the development of veins about the liver. B, dc, ducts of Cuvier, right and left;…

Diagram illustrating the development of the great veins. dc, ducts of Cuvier; j, jugular veins; h, hepatic vein; c, cardinal veins; s, subclavian vein; ci, inferior vena cava; r, renal veins; il, iliac veins; hij, hypogastric veins.

Development of Great Veins

Diagram illustrating the development of the great veins. dc, ducts of Cuvier; j, jugular veins; h, hepatic…

Diagram showing the formation of large veins by convergence of small, and the branching of veins.

Formation of Large Veins

Diagram showing the formation of large veins by convergence of small, and the branching of veins.

"<em>A</em>, inferior vena cava, cut off just above the hepatic veins; <em>B</em>, superior vena cava, cut off just below the junction of the innominate veins; <em>C</em>, right and left innominate veins; <em>D</em>, left internal jugular vein. The veins, known as <em>azygos</em>, with some of their main branches, are shown. These veins connect the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Vena cava

"A, inferior vena cava, cut off just above the hepatic veins; B, superior vena cava,…